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DBMS > Cassandra vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonTiDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLTiDB is an open source distributed Hybrid Transactional/Analytical Processing (HTAP) database that supports MySQL and Spark SQL syntaxes.
Primary database modelWide column storeRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score125.21
Rank#10  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score481.33
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score2.07
Rank#117  Overall
#60  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgwww.postgresql.orgpingcap.com
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualspingcap.com/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerPingCAP, Inc.
Initial release20081989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2016
Current release3.11.4, February 201911.5, August 20193.0.0, June 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Google Cloud SQL: A fully-managed database service for the Google Cloud Platform
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting with high availability, dedicated servers, and superuser control on the #1 multi-cloud Amazon RDS alternative.
Implementation languageJavaCGo, Rust
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
Data schemeschema-freeyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)yes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
native C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Proprietary protocol
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashhorizontal partitioning (by key range)
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsUsing Raft consensus algorithm to ensure data replication with strong consistency among multiple replicas.
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnoyes infowith TiSpark Connector
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesno infocurrently only supported in syntax
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept. No user groups or roles.
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraPostgreSQLTiDB
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
TiDB is an open source distributed scalable hybrid transactional and analytical processing...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
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In the current database landscape, infrastructure engineers often have to use one...
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Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
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TiDB is designed to support both OLTP and OLAP scenarios. You can use TiDB , the...
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Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Bank of Beijing (Banking) Mobike (Ridesharing) Toutiao (Media) Ele.me (Catering)...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
InfoWorld’s 2018 Best of Open Source Software Award winners 15000+ stars on GitHub...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more
Open Source Apache 2.0 with either commercial licensing or fully-hosted DB-as-a-service...
» more
News

Lesson Learned from Queries over 1.3 Trillion Rows of Data Within Milliseconds of Response Time at Zhihu.com
21 August 2019

Porting TiDB to ARM64 for Greater Flexibility
16 August 2019

Migrating the TiKV Rust Client from Futures 0.1 to 0.3
8 August 2019

TiDB Operator 1.0 GA: Database Cluster Deployment and Management Made Easy with Kubernetes
30 July 2019

Why Benchmarking Distributed Databases Is So Hard
8 July 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesInstaclustr: Fully Hosted and Managed Apache Cassandra
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DataStax Enterprise: Apache Cassandra for enterprises.
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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Dremio is like magic for PostgreSQL accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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DBHawk: a web-based PostgreSQL/Greenplum database tool. Boost database development and BI productivity with an online Universal database tool.
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2ndQuadrant: PostgreSQL Solutions for the Enterprise.
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Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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SQLPro for PostgreSQL: A simple but powerful PostgreSQL database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CassandraPostgreSQLTiDB
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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Conference, Asia 2019
Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, 9-12 September 2019

PostgreSQL Conference, Europe 2019
Milan, Italy, 15-18 October 2019

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