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DBMS > Amazon Redshift vs. Impala vs. Oracle vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Amazon Redshift vs. Impala vs. Oracle vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Redshift  Xexclude from comparisonImpala  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionLarge scale data warehouse service for use with business intelligence toolsAnalytic DBMS for HadoopWidely used RDBMSVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMSGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score21.78
Rank#31  Overall
#19  Relational DBMS
Score15.07
Rank#36  Overall
#22  Relational DBMS
Score1336.07
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score2.63
Rank#97  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­redshiftwww.cloudera.com/­products/­open-source/­apache-hadoop/­impala.htmlwww.oracle.com/­databasevirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.aws.amazon.com/­redshiftwww.cloudera.com/­documentation/­enterprise/­latest/­topics/­impala.htmldocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasedocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperAmazon (based on PostgreSQL)ClouderaOracleOpenLink Software
Initial release2012201319801998
Current release3.3.0, August 201919c, February 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache Version 2commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCC++C and C++C
Server operating systemshostedLinuxAIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyesyes
Secondary indexesrestrictedyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infodoes not fully support an SQL-standardSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
JDBC
ODBC
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCC
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions infoin Pythonyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reducePL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnonoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingShardinghorizontal partitioning infowith the optional Oracle Partitioningyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyesselectable replication factorMaster-master replication
Master-slave replication
Chain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnoyes infoquery execution via MapReduceno infocan be realized in PL/SQLyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyEventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoinformational only, not enforced by the systemnoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDnoACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnoyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'yes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon RedshiftImpalaOracleVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsOracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsOracle Database Cloud Services Customers can choose from a wide range of database...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesDBHawk: a web-based Amazon Redshift Workbench and Cloud database tool.
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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Dremio is like magic for Redshift accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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DBHawk: a web-based Oracle database management and self-service BI software.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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Navicat for Oracle improves the efficiency and productivity of Oracle developers and administrators with a streamlined working environment.
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Dremio is like magic for Oracle accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Amazon RedshiftImpalaOracleVirtuoso
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