DB-EnginesCrateDB bannerEnglish
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > LevelDB vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison LevelDB vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

Please select another system to include it in the comparison.

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameLevelDB  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionEmbeddable fast key-value storage library that provides an ordered mapping from string keys to string valuesOpen source graph databaseVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelKey-value storeGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.95
Rank#88  Overall
#15  Key-value stores
Score50.53
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score2.63
Rank#97  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websitegithub.com/­google/­leveldbneo4j.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationgithub.com/­google/­leveldb/­blob/­master/­doc/­index.mdneo4j.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperGoogleNeo4j, Inc.OpenLink Software
Initial release201120071998
Current release1.22, May 20193.5.8, July 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: The simplest way to run Neo4j in the cloud
Implementation languageC++Java, ScalaC
Server operating systemsIllumos
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free and schema-optionalyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or datenoyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes
Secondary indexesnoyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnonoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsC++ API
Go
Java infoThird party binding
Node.js infoThird party binding
Python infoThird party binding
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC++
Go
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnoyes infovia event handleryes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith automatic compression on writesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes
User concepts infoAccess controlnoUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Fine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
LevelDBNeo4jVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

A Conversation with Graphs
20 November 2019

Reveal Hidden Patterns In Healthcare Data: Graph Analytics and the Opioid Crisis
19 November 2019

This Week in Neo4j – APOC Pearls, Exploring Full-Text Search, Exploring structural balance, Graphistania v2.0
16 November 2019

#GraphCast: “Graph Databases Will Change Your Freakin’ Life”
15 November 2019

Fullstack GraphQL with Neo4j
13 November 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
LevelDBNeo4jVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

show all

Conferences and events

GraphConnect 2020
New York, USA, 20-22 April 2020

Recent citations in the news

Blockchain Analytics: How To Use Bitcoin & Ethereum Transactional Data For Actionable Insights
18 November 2019, Analytics India Magazine

Nexus releases Tritium, a revolutionary register-based contract engine
5 November 2019, Yahoo Finance

Ethereum (ETH) Reaches 1-Day Trading Volume of $7.56 Billion
19 November 2019, NCTY News

Ethereum (ETH) Tops 24 Hour Volume of $6.91 Billion
18 November 2019, TechNewsObserver

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Test-Case Reduction, But Didn’t Know to Ask
11 November 2019, Security Boulevard

provided by Google News

Neo4j introduces new cloud service to simplify building a graph database
6 November 2019, TechCrunch

Small or medium business? Neo4j wants to run a graph database for you in the cloud
7 November 2019, ZDNet

Neo4J Launches Cloud Graph Database
13 November 2019, iProgrammer

news digest: Neo4j Aura released, Applause announces new AI training and testing solution, and AutoML translate now GA - SD Times
6 November 2019, SDTimes.com

Neo4j introduces Aura, a new cloud service to supply a flexible, reliable and developer-friendly graph database
7 November 2019, Packt Hub

provided by Google News

Job opportunities

Backend Engineer
Beyondsoft Consulting, Bellevue, WA

Senior Back End Engineer
Beyondsoft Consulting, Bellevue, WA

Blockchain/Ethereum Core Engineer
Live Planet, San Jose, CA

Systems Reliability Engineer
Cloudflare, San Francisco, CA

Senior Back End Engineer & Platform Engineer (2 roles)
NowSecure, Seattle, WA

Vice President, Architecture
JP Morgan Chase, Plano, TX

Population Health Analyst
naviHealth, Brentwood, TN

Data Science Consultant
Patrick Engineering Inc, Chicago, IL

DEP Data Quality Analyst
Bechtel, Reston, VA

Data Scientists
Inductive Minds, Washington, DC

jobs by Indeed




Share this page

Featured Products

Couchbase logo

SQL + JSON + NoSQL.
Power, flexibility & scale.
All open source.
Get started now.

Redis logo

Hosted, serverless DBaaS
in 3 steps.

30MB Free!
Start now.

AllegroGraph logo

Graph Database Leader for AI Knowledge Graph Applications - The Most Secure Graph Database Available.
Free Download

Neo4j logo

Get your free copy of the new O'Reilly book Graph Algorithms with 20+ examples for
machine learning, graph analytics and more.


Datastax logo

Build data-driven applications that set the standard for performance, availability,
& scale with DataStax.
Learn more.

Present your product here