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DBMS > Citus vs. Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Citus vs. Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCitus  Xexclude from comparisonLovefield  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLEmbeddable relational database for web apps written in pure JavaScriptOpen source graph databaseEnterprise Knowledge Graph and graph DBMS with high availability and high performance reasoning
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.93
Rank#154  Overall
#76  Relational DBMS
Score0.19
Rank#259  Overall
#122  Relational DBMS
Score49.46
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score0.76
Rank#168  Overall
#13  Graph DBMS
#7  RDF stores
Websitewww.citusdata.comgoogle.github.io/­lovefieldneo4j.comwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationdocs.citusdata.comgithub.com/­google/­lovefield/­blob/­master/­docs/­spec_index.mdneo4j.com/­docswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperGoogleNeo4j, Inc.Stardog-Union
Initial release2010201420072010
Current release8.1, December 20182.1.12, February 20173.5.8, July 20196.2.3, July 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availableOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCJavaScriptJava, ScalaJava
Server operating systemsLinuxserver-less, requires a JavaScript environment (browser, Node.js) infotested with Chrome, Firefox, IE, SafariLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalitynono infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsSQL-like query language infovia JavaScript builder patternnoSPARQL is used as query language
APIs and other access methodsnative C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
JavaScript.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.noyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
TriggersyesUsing read-only observersyes infovia event handleryes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingnonenonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMaster-master replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes, by using IndexedDB or the cloud service Firebase Realtime Databaseyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes infousing MemoryDByes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
CitusLovefieldNeo4jStardog
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is a knowledge graph platform backed by a performant, scalable graph database....
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog is uniquely designed to aid in data integration for your complex data. Benefits...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

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More resources
CitusLovefieldNeo4jStardog
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Conferences and events

GraphConnect 2020
New York, USA, 20-22 April 2020

Recent citations in the news

What is Azure Database for PostgreSQL?
30 September 2019, IT PRO

Microsoft acquires Citus Data
24 January 2019, TechCrunch

Microsoft Expands Azure PostgreSQL Moxy Through Citus Data Purchase
30 January 2019, Data Center Knowledge

Microsoft Acquires Citus Data to Dive Deeper into Postgres
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