DBMS > PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso
System Properties Comparison PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||Stardog Xexclude from comparison||Virtuoso Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization||Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs|
|Primary database model||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Graph DBMS|
Native XML DBMS
|Secondary database models||Document store|
|Developer||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||Stardog-Union||OpenLink Software|
|Initial release||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||2010||1998|
|Current release||15.2, February 2023||7.3.0, May 2020||7.2.7, May 2022|
|License Commercial or Open Source||Open Source BSD||commercial 60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students||Open Source GPLv2, extended commercial license available|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||no||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
|Server operating systems||FreeBSD|
|Data scheme||yes||schema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support||yes SQL - Standard relational schema |
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.||no Import/export of XML data possible||yes|
|Secondary indexes||yes||yes supports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial||yes|
|SQL Support of SQL||yes standard with numerous extensions||Yes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server||yes SQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX|
|APIs and other access methods||ADO.NET|
native C library
streaming API for large objects
|GraphQL query language|
Jena RDF API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
Jena RDF API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
|Supported programming languages||.Net|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.||user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java||yes Virtuoso PL|
|Triggers||yes||yes via event handlers||yes|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash||none||yes|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions||Multi-source replication in HA-Cluster||Chain, star, and bi-directional replication|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||no||no||yes|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster||Immediate Consistency|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||yes||yes relationships in graphs||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||ACID||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||yes||yes|
|User concepts Access control||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||Access rights for users and roles||Fine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)|
|More information provided by the system vendor|
|Specific characteristics||Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...|
|Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...|
|Competitive advantages||Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....|
|Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...|
|Typical application scenarios||Stardog is frequently used for: Supply chain optimization Operational Risk Digital...|
|Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...|
|Key customers||Bosch, NASA, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cisco, Schneider Electric, FINRA and more — https://www.stardog.com/customers/|
|Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...|
|Market metrics||Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...|
|Largest installed-base of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...|
|Licensing and pricing models||You can start for free! It’s easy to get started using Stardog’s leading Enterprise...|
|Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...|
We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
|Related products and services|
|3rd parties||pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring. |
Instaclustr: Fully Hosted & Managed PostgreSQL
Datasentinel: Platform for Monitoring and Analyzing the performance problems of your PostgreSQL Clusters
Aiven for PostgreSQL: The familiar open source PostgreSQL® that you know and love, with no proprietary features or add-ons that will lock you in.
Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
Fujitsu Enterprise Postgres: An Enterprise Grade PostgreSQL with the flexibility of a hybrid cloud solution combined with industry leading security, availability and performance.
DbVisualizer is equipping database professionals with the tools they need to build, manage and maintain state-of-the-art database technologies. It has sky-high user satisfaction and is the preferred tool for database professionals around the world. Customers include Tesla, Apple, Facebook, Deutsche Bank, NASA, and 25,000 others in 145 countries.
SQLFlow: Provides a visual representation of the overall flow of data. Automated SQL data lineage analysis across Databases, ETL, Business Intelligence, Cloud and Hadoop environments by parsing SQL Script and stored procedure.
Percona: Database problems? Not on your watch.
Databases run better with Percona.
The State of PostgreSQL 2022 survey is now open!
We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.
|DB-Engines blog posts|
Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2022, defending the title from last year Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2021 Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2021 Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
|Conferences and events|
PGCon 2023, PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers
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