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DBMS > PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NamePostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph and graph DBMS with high availability and high performance reasoningA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 APIVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMSGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score514.80
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.07
Rank#143  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.18
Rank#268  Overall
#23  Graph DBMS
Score2.35
Rank#99  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#49  Relational DBMS
#3  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websitewww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlinvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-UnionOpenLink Software
Initial release1989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201020091998
Current release12.3, May 20206.2.3, July 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • ScaleGrid: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting with high availability, dedicated servers, and superuser control on the #1 multi-cloud Amazon RDS alternative.
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Implementation languageCJavaJavaC
Server operating systemsFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-freeyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possiblenoyes
Secondary indexesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialnoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infostandard with numerous extensionsSPARQL is used as query languagenoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javanoyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyes infovia event handlersnoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodespartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMaster-master replication in HA-ClusternoneChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-ClusternoneImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDnoACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesnoyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesoptionalyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesnoFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
PostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraphVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsStardog is a knowledge graph platform backed by a performant, scalable graph database....
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog is uniquely designed to aid in data integration for your complex data. Benefits...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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2ndQuadrant: Mission Critical Databases.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
PostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraphVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
2 January 2019, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2017
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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Online Trainings
Online Training Courses, 4 May 2020 - 11 December 2020

PGCon 2020, PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers
Due to COVID-19, it will be an online conference, 26-29 May 2020

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PostgreSQL Gets a Parallel Processing Boost
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Multi-tenant data isolation with PostgreSQL Row Level Security
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PostgreSQL 12 – A deep dive into some new functionality
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provided by Google News

Save Joern — Open Source at ShiftLeft
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provided by Google News

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