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DBMS > PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TimescaleDB vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TimescaleDB vs. TinkerGraph

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NamePostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTimescaleDB  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA time series DBMS optimized for fast ingest and complex queries, based on PostgreSQLA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Time Series DBMSGraph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument storeRelational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score514.80
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.07
Rank#143  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score1.77
Rank#115  Overall
#8  Time Series DBMS
Score0.18
Rank#268  Overall
#23  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.comwww.timescale.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docsdocs.timescale.com
DeveloperPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-UnionTimescale
Initial release1989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201020172009
Current release12.3, May 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting with high availability, dedicated servers, and superuser control on the #1 multi-cloud Amazon RDS alternative.
Implementation languageCJavaCJava
Server operating systemsFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesnumerics, strings, booleans, arrays, JSON blobs, geospatial dimensions, currencies, binary data, other complex data typesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possibleyesno
Secondary indexesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialyesno
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infostandard with numerous extensionsYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serveryes infofull PostgreSQL SQL syntaxno
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javauser defined functions, PL/pgSQL, PL/Tcl, PL/Perl, PL/Python, PL/Java, PL/PHP, PL/R, PL/Ruby, PL/Scheme, PL/Unix shellno
Triggersyesyes infovia event handlersyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodespartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnoneyes, across time and space (hash partitioning) attributesnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMaster-master replication in HA-ClusterMaster-slave replication with hot standby and reads on slaves infonone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-ClusterImmediate Consistencynone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyes inforelationships in graphsyesyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardno
More information provided by the system vendor
PostgreSQLStardogTimescaleDBTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Timescale is the creator of TimescaleDB , the first open-source time-series database...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
TimescaleDB is purpose-built to scale and handle time-series data workloads and is...
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
IoT, Industrial Machine, and Sensor Data Various industrial IoT use cases across...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Comcast, Cray, Cree, DNSFilter, LAIKA, Nutanix, Sakura Internet, Schneider Electric,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
With over 8.5K GitHub stars and growing, 1.8 million+ downloads, and an active Slack...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
TimescaleDB comes in 3 versions, including a fully managed Cloud-hosted solution,...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesAzure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
» more

General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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CYBERTEC: your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science based on PostgreSQL since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide!
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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SQLPro for PostgreSQL: A simple but powerful PostgreSQL database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
» more

2ndQuadrant: Mission Critical Databases.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
PostgreSQLStardogTimescaleDBTinkerGraph
DB-Engines blog posts

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
2 January 2019, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2017
2 January 2018, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

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4 January 2017, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Online Trainings
Online Training Courses, 4 May 2020 - 11 December 2020

Recent citations in the news

PostgreSQL: Businesses choose open source for digital transformation
12 May 2020, TechHQ

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22 August 2019, Packt Hub

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29 January 2019, TechCrunch

TimescaleDB Readies its 1.0 Launch for Primetime
13 September 2018, RTInsights

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18 June 2019, Business Wire

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