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DBMS > Neo4j vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Neo4j vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionScalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offeringsEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Document store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score55.43
Rank#20  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score1.63
Rank#163  Overall
#14  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score6.11
Rank#69  Overall
#13  Document stores
#3  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#38  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websiteneo4j.comwww.stardog.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationneo4j.com/­docsdocs.stardog.comdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperNeo4j, Inc.Stardog-UnionOpenLink Software
Initial release200720101998
Current release5.4, January 20237.3.0, May 20207.2.7, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageJava, ScalaJavaC
Server operating systemsLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.no infoImport/export of XML data possibleyes
Secondary indexesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serveryes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javayes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyes infovia event handleryes infovia event handlersyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesyes using Neo4j Fabricnoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMulti-source replication in HA-ClusterChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency in HA-ClusterImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and rolesFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Neo4jStardogVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Supply chain optimization Operational Risk Digital...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, NASA, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cisco, Schneider Electric, FINRA and more — https://www.stardog.com/customers/
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
You can start for free! It’s easy to get started using Stardog’s leading Enterprise...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Fight Cybercrime With Bloom: The 5-Minute Interview With Bertrand Provost
7 February 2023

Announcing Neo4j Graph Data Science 2.3
1 February 2023

This Week in Neo4j: VS Code Extension, Geospatial Data, Closeness Centrality, Project Management, and More!
28 January 2023

How to Graph an ERP System in 3 Easy Steps
26 January 2023

Graph Analytics: The Future in Data Science?
25 January 2023

Related products and services
3rd partiesGraphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Neo4jStardogVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

show all

Recent citations in the news

How to install the Neo4j Desktop app and connect it to a remote server
2 February 2023, TechRepublic

Neo4j with Temasek Polytechnic launches Graphs4SG to train up graph technology talent across Singapore
8 February 2023, ETCIO South East Asia

Gemini Data and Neo4j Announce Partnership to Deliver the World's ...
23 January 2023, PR Web

Neo4j Announces General Availability of its Next-Generation Graph ...
9 November 2022, PR Newswire

Try a Neo4j Graph Database Right Here, Right Now
9 December 2022, The New Stack

provided by Google News



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