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DBMS > Neo4j vs. Solr vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Neo4j vs. Solr vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonSolr  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOpen source graph databaseA widely used distributed, scalable search engine based on Apache LuceneVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelGraph DBMSSearch engineGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score48.27
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score51.26
Rank#18  Overall
#3  Search engines
Score2.28
Rank#106  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#50  Relational DBMS
#3  RDF stores
#10  Search engines
Websiteneo4j.comlucene.apache.org/­solrvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationneo4j.com/­docslucene.apache.org/­solr/­resources.htmldocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperNeo4j, Inc.Apache Software FoundationOpenLink Software
Initial release200720061998
Current release4.0.4, May 20208.5.2, May 20208.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoApache Version 2Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageJava, ScalaJavaC
Server operating systemsLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
All OS with a Java VM inforuns as a servlet in servlet container (e.g. Tomcat, Jetty is included)AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and schema-optionalyes infoDynamic Fields enables on-the-fly addition of new fieldsyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infosupports customizable data types and automatic typingyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes
Secondary indexesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infoAll search fields are automatically indexedyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoSolr Parallel SQL Interfaceyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
Java API
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Erlang
Java
JavaScript
any language that supports sockets and either XML or JSON
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infoUser defined Procedures and FunctionsJava pluginsyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyes infovia event handleryes infoUser configurable commands triggered on index changesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyyesChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnospark-solr: github.com/­lucidworks/­spark-solr and streaming expressions to reduceyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Eventual ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsnoyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDoptimistic lockingACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)yesFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Neo4jSolrVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Announcing New Neo4j Online Training Courses!
4 June 2020

Creative Use of Network Science with Graph Commons
3 June 2020

Analytical Subgraph Overlays in Neo4j
2 June 2020

Graph-Powered Recommendations: A Framework for Faster Development
1 June 2020

This Week in Neo4j – Data Modeling Best Practices, JHipster and Neo4j, Circular Money Flow, Visualizing a Spring Integration graph
30 May 2020

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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
Neo4jSolrVirtuoso
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