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DBMS > Neo4j vs. RDF4J vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Neo4j vs. RDF4J vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonRDF4J infoformerly known as Sesame  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOpen source graph databaseRDF4J is a Java framework for processing RDF data, supporting both memory-based and a disk-based storage.Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelGraph DBMSRDF storeGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score51.34
Rank#21  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score0.57
Rank#220  Overall
#9  RDF stores
Score2.57
Rank#110  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#54  Relational DBMS
#3  RDF stores
#10  Search engines
Websiteneo4j.comrdf4j.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationneo4j.com/­docsrdf4j.org/­documentationdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperNeo4j, Inc.Since 2016 officially forked into an Eclipse project, former developer was Aduna Software.OpenLink Software
Initial release200720041998
Current release4.1.3, October 202008.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoEclipse Distribution License (EDL), v1.0.Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageJava, ScalaJavaC
Server operating systemsLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
OS X
Unix
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and schema-optionalyes infoRDF Schemasyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes
Secondary indexesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnonoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
Java API
RIO infoRDF Input/Output
Sail API
SeRQL infoSesame RDF Query Language
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Java
PHP
Python
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsyesyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyes infovia event handleryesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlynoneChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infoIsolation support depends on the API usedACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes infoin-memory storage is supported as wellyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)noFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Neo4jRDF4J infoformerly known as SesameVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Announcing: Graph-Native Machine Learning in Neo4j!
21 October 2020

NODES 2020 Virtual Space: Have a Peek
19 October 2020

This Week in Neo4j – Neo4j 4.0 procedure examples, Connecting your React app to Neo4j with React Hooks, New Graph Algorithms Training
17 October 2020

The Lean-In Moment: 5-Minute Interview with Paul Westcott
16 October 2020

5-Minute Interview: Graph Databases For Dummies with Dr. Jim Webber and Rik Van Bruggen
15 October 2020

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

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More resources
Neo4jRDF4J infoformerly known as SesameVirtuoso
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Recent citations in the news

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21 October 2020, AiThority

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Neo4j Democratizes Graph-Based Machine Learning with the Launch of Graph Data Science™
21 October 2020, Read IT Quik

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23 September 2020, PRNewswire

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30 April 2020, PR Newswire UK

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13 May 2019, InfoWorld

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