DBMS > Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. SurrealDB
System Properties Comparison Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. SurrealDB
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||Neo4j Xexclude from comparison||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||SurrealDB Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||Scalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offerings||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||A fully ACID transactional, developer-friendly, multi-model DBMS|
|Primary database model||Graph DBMS||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Document store|
|Secondary database models||Document store|
Graph DBMS with Apache Age
Vector DBMS with pgvector extension
|Developer||Neo4j, Inc.||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||SurrealDB Ltd|
|Initial release||2007||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||2022|
|Current release||5.14, November 2023||16.1, November 2023|
|License Commercial or Open Source||Open Source GPL version3, commercial licenses available||Open Source BSD||Open Source|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||no||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.||Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.|
|Implementation language||Java, Scala||C||Rust|
|Server operating systems||Linux Can also be used server-less as embedded Java database.|
|Data scheme||schema-free and schema-optional||yes||schema-free|
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.|
|Secondary indexes||yes pluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Lucene||yes|
|SQL Support of SQL||no||yes standard with numerous extensions||SQL-like query language|
|APIs and other access methods||Bolt protocol|
Cypher query language
Neo4j-OGM Object Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
native C library
streaming API for large objects
RESTful HTTP API
|Supported programming languages||.Net|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||yes User defined Procedures and Functions||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.|
|Triggers||yes via event handler||yes|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||yes using Neo4j Fabric||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||Causal Clustering using Raft protocol available in in Enterprise Version only||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||no||no||no|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup|
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||yes Relationships in graphs||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||ACID||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no|
|User concepts Access control||Users, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||yes, based on authentication and database rules|
|More information provided by the system vendor|
|Specific characteristics||Neo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...|
|Competitive advantages||Neo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...|
|Typical application scenarios||Real-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...|
|Key customers||Over 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...|
|Market metrics||Neo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...|
|Licensing and pricing models||GPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...|
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