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DBMS > Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOpen source graph databaseWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelGraph DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score53.53
Rank#20  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score555.06
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.46
Rank#143  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.19
Rank#282  Overall
#23  Graph DBMS
Websiteneo4j.comwww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationneo4j.com/­docswww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperNeo4j, Inc.PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-Union
Initial release20071989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL20102009
Current release4.1.4, November 202013.1, November 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJava, ScalaCJavaJava
Server operating systemsLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and schema-optionalyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialno
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyes infostandard with numerous extensionsYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languages.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
Triggersyes infovia event handleryesyes infovia event handlersno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlySource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replication in HA-Clusternone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Clusternone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesno
More information provided by the system vendor
Neo4jPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
News

The Neo4j BI Connector: Many Use Cases
23 November 2020

This Week in Neo4j – Neo4j 4.2 Released, kNN in the GDS Library, Data Auditing with Spring Data Neo4j
21 November 2020

#GraphCast: Tableau & Neo4j in Real Time
20 November 2020

Understanding Graphs and Graph Data Science
19 November 2020

Announcing Spring Data Neo4j 6.0
18 November 2020

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
Neo4jPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraph
DB-Engines blog posts

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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Online Trainings
Online Training Courses, 4 May 2020 - 11 December 2020

Recent citations in the news

An Introduction to Neo4j
3 November 2020, iProgrammer

Neo4j Named a Leader in Graph Data Platforms by Independent Research Firm
16 November 2020, Yahoo Finance

Neo4j Announces Graph Machine Learning Framework
27 October 2020, iProgrammer

Neo4j Announces First Graph Machine Learning for the Enterprise
20 October 2020, PRNewswire

Graph Databases Gaining Enterprise-Ready Features
4 November 2020, EnterpriseAI

provided by Google News

Developers increasingly pair MongoDB with PostgreSQL, survey finds
3 November 2020, TechRepublic

Introducing Flexible Server in Azure Database for PostgreSQL & MySQL | Azure Friday - Microsoft
30 October 2020, Channel 9

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2 November 2020, AiThority

EDB to Host Free Virtual Conference for PostgreSQL Users in Europe
29 October 2020, RealWire

EDB Drives Further Postgres Innovation with Release of EDB 13
17 November 2020, DevOps.com

provided by Google News

Amazon Neptune review: A scalable graph database for OLTP
13 May 2019, InfoWorld

Gremlin, a Language for Working with Graphs
15 January 2010, InfoQ.com

provided by Google News

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