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DBMS > MongoDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

System Properties Comparison MongoDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMongoDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonTiDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOne of the most popular document stores available both as a fully managed cloud service and for deployment on self-managed infrastructureWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLTiDB is an open source distributed SQL database that supports Hybrid Transactional/Analytical Processing (HTAP) workloads. It is MySQL compatible and features horizontal scalability, strong consistency, and high availability.
Primary database modelDocument storeRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMS
Search engine infointegrated Lucene index, currently in MongoDB Atlas only.
Time Series DBMS infoTime Series Collections introduced in Release 5.0
Vector DBMS infocurrently available in the MongoDB Atlas cloud service only
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score424.53
Rank#5  Overall
#1  Document stores
Score634.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score5.14
Rank#75  Overall
#41  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.mongodb.comwww.postgresql.orgpingcap.com
Technical documentationwww.mongodb.com/­docs/­manualwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.pingcap.com/­tidb/­stable
DeveloperMongoDB, IncPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerPingCAP, Inc.
Initial release20091989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2016
Current release6.0.7, June 202316.2, February 20247.6.0, January 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoMongoDB Inc.'s Server Side Public License v1. Prior versions were published under GNU AGPL v3.0. Commercial licenses are also available.Open Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceno infoMongoDB available as DBaaS (MongoDB Atlas)nono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
MongoDB Atlas: Global multi-cloud database with unmatched data distribution and mobility across AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud, built-in automation for resource and workload optimization, and so much more.Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.TiDB Cloud: Fully-managed TiDB Service. Bring everything great about TiDB to the cloud.
Implementation languageC++CGo, Rust
Server operating systemsLinux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
Data schemeschema-free infoAlthough schema-free, documents of the same collection often follow the same structure. Optionally impose all or part of a schema by defining a JSON schema.yesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyes infostring, integer, double, decimal, boolean, date, object_id, geospatialyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLRead-only SQL queries via the MongoDB Atlas SQL Interfaceyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsGraphQL
HTTP REST
Prisma
proprietary protocol using JSON
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GORM
JDBC
ODBC
Proprietary protocol
SQLAlchemy
Supported programming languagesActionscript infounofficial driver
C
C#
C++
Clojure infounofficial driver
ColdFusion infounofficial driver
D infounofficial driver
Dart infounofficial driver
Delphi infounofficial driver
Erlang
Go
Groovy infounofficial driver
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Kotlin
Lisp infounofficial driver
Lua infounofficial driver
MatLab infounofficial driver
Perl
PHP
PowerShell infounofficial driver
Prolog infounofficial driver
Python
R infounofficial driver
Ruby
Rust
Scala
Smalltalk infounofficial driver
Swift
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJavaScriptuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersyes infoin MongoDB Atlas onlyyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infoPartitioned by hashed, ranged, or zoned sharding keys. Live resharding allows users to change their shard keys as an online operation with zero downtime.partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashhorizontal partitioning (by key range)
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-Source deployments with MongoDB Atlas Global Clusters
Source-replica replication
Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsUsing Raft consensus algorithm to ensure data replication with strong consistency among multiple replicas.
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnoyes infowith TiSpark Connector
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency infocan be individually decided for each read operation
Immediate Consistency infodefault behaviour
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityno infotypically not used, however similar functionality with DBRef possibleyesyes infofull support since version 6.6
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataMulti-document ACID Transactions with snapshot isolationACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infooptional, enabled by defaultyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes infoIn-memory storage engine introduced with MongoDB version 3.2nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
MongoDBPostgreSQLTiDB
Specific characteristicsMongoDB provides an integrated suite of cloud database and data services to accelerate...
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TiDB is an advanced open-source, distributed SQL database for modern application...
» more
Competitive advantagesBuilt around the flexible document data model and unified API, MongoDB is a developer...
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- HORIZONTAL SCALING : TiDB grants total transparency into your data workloads without...
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Typical application scenariosAI-enriched intelligent apps (Continental, Telefonica, Iron Mountain) Internet of...
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TiDB is ideal for transactional applications that require extreme scalability and...
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Key customersADP, Adobe, Amadeus, AstraZeneca, Auto Trader, Barclays, BBVA, Bosch, Cisco, CERN,...
» more
Block, Pinterest, Catalyst, Bolt, Flipkart, Capcom, Shopee (E-commerce), JD Cloud...
» more
Market metricsHundreds of millions downloads, over 150,000+ Atlas clusters provisioned every month...
» more
34K+ GitHub stars 5K+ members in TiDB Community Slack 1K+ community contributors...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsMongoDB database server: Server-Side Public License (SSPL) . Commercial licenses...
» more
TiDB Community : Free open source software (Apache 2.0) TiDB Self-Hosted : Enterprise...
» more

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3rd partiesNavicat for MongoDB gives you a highly effective GUI interface for MongoDB database management, administration and development.
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Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
MongoDBPostgreSQLTiDB
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