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DBMS > MongoDB vs. MySQL vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison MongoDB vs. MySQL vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMongoDB  Xexclude from comparisonMySQL  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOne of the most popular document storesWidely used open source RDBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelDocument storeRelational DBMS infoKey/Value like access via memcached APIRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsKey-value storeDocument store
Key-value store
Document store
Key-value store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score387.18
Rank#5  Overall
#1  Document stores
Score1154.27
Rank#2  Overall
#2  Relational DBMS
Score466.11
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.mongodb.comwww.mysql.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdocs.mongodb.com/­manualdev.mysql.com/­docwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manuals
DeveloperMongoDB, IncOracle infosince 2010, originally MySQL AB, then SunPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release200919951989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release4.0.5, December 20188.0.13, October 201811.1, November 2018
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoMongoDB Inc.'s Server Side Public License v1. Prior versions were published under GNU AGPL v3.0. Commercial licenses are also available.Open Source infoGPL version 2. Commercial licenses with extended functionallity are availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceno infoMongoDB available as DBaaS (MongoDB Atlas)nono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service
  • Google Cloud SQL: A fully-managed database service for the Google Cloud Platform
  • Azure Database for MySQL: A fully managed, scalable MySQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • Google Cloud SQL: A fully-managed database service for the Google Cloud Platform
Implementation languageC++C and C++C
Server operating systemsLinux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeschema-free infoAlthough schema-free, documents of the same collection often follow the same structure. Optionally impose all or part of a schema by defining a JSON schema.yesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyes infostring, integer, double, decimal, boolean, date, object_id, geospatialyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLRead-only SQL queries via the MongoDB Connector for BIyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsproprietary protocol using JSONProprietary native API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
native C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesActionscript infoinofficial driver
C
C#
C++
Clojure infoinofficial driver
ColdFusion infoinofficial driver
D infoinofficial driver
Dart infoinofficial driver
Delphi infoinofficial driver
Erlang
Go infoinofficial driver
Groovy infoinofficial driver
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp infoinofficial driver
Lua infoinofficial driver
MatLab infoinofficial driver
Perl
PHP
PowerShell infoinofficial driver
Prolog infoinofficial driver
Python
R infoinofficial driver
Ruby
Scala
Smalltalk infoinofficial driver
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJavaScriptyes infoproprietary syntaxuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardinghorizontal partitioning, sharding with MySQL Cluster or MySQL Fabricpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-slave replicationMaster-master replication
Master-slave replication
Master-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityno infotypically not used, however similar functionality with DBRef possibleyes infonot for MyISAM storage engineyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataMulti-document ACID Transactions with snapshot isolationACID infonot for MyISAM storage engineACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyes infotable locks or row locks depending on storage engineyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infooptionalyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes infoIn-memory storage engine introduced with MongoDB version 3.2yesno
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and rolesUsers with fine-grained authorization concept infono user groups or rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
MongoDBMySQLPostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsMongoDB is the next-generation database that helps businesses transform their industries...
» more
Competitive advantagesBy offering the best of traditional databases as well as the flexibility, scale,...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (Bosch, Silver Spring Networks) Mobile (The Weather Channel, ADP,...
» more
Key customersADP, Adobe, Amadeus, AstraZeneca, Barclays, BBVA, Bond, Bosch, Cisco, CERN, City...
» more
Market metrics40 million downloads (growing at 30 thousand downloads per day). 6,600+ customers....
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsMongoDB database server: Free Software Foundation’s GNU AGPL v3.0. Commercial licenses...
» more

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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
MongoDBMySQLPostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
2 January 2019, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

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PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
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Conferences and events

PGCon 2019, PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers
Ottawa, Canada, 28-31 May 2019

Recent citations in the news

Amazon faces strong competition from MongoDB in cloud-based database race
19 January 2019, Fox Business

MongoDB "open-source" Server Side Public License rejected
16 January 2019, ZDNet

Red Hat gets heebie-jeebies over MongoDB's T&Cs squeeze: NoSQL database dropped from RHEL 8B over license
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Fedora, a Red Hat sponsored project, rejects MongoDB because of SSPL
18 January 2019, Business Insider

MongoDB’s licensing changes led Red Hat to drop the database from the latest version of its server OS
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The Guardian's Migration from MongoDB to PostgreSQL on Amazon RDS
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9 January 2019, Packt Hub

The Enduring Influence Of Postgres
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