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DBMS > Milvus vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Milvus vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMilvus  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA DBMS designed for efficient storage of vector data and vector similarity searchesScalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offeringsWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelSearch engineGraph DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.78
Rank#240  Overall
#17  Search engines
Score55.43
Rank#20  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score616.50
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitemilvus.ioneo4j.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationmilvus.io/­docs/­overview.mdneo4j.com/­docswww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperNeo4j, Inc.PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201920071989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release2.2, November 20225.3, December 202215.1, November 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2.0Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Zilliz Cloud – Cloud-native service for MilvusNeo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
  • Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed and hosted PostgreSQL® with 70+ extensions and orchestration tooling included.
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL DBaaS hosting On-Premises and on clouds such as AWS, Azure, GCP and DigitalOcean with no vendor lock-in. Leverage any extension and get SSH access.
Implementation languageC++, GoJava, ScalaC
Server operating systemsLinux
macOS info10.14 or later
Windows infowith WSL 2 enabled
Linux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and schema-optionalyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateVector, Numeric and Stringyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesnoyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnonoyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsRESTful HTTP APIBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyes infovia event handleryes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingyes using Neo4j Fabricpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlySource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemBounded Staleness
Eventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Session Consistency
Tunable Consistency
Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlnoUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
MilvusNeo4jPostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsMilvus is an open-source and cloud-native vector database built for production-ready...
» more
Neo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Competitive advantagesHighly available, versatile, and robust with millisecond latency. Supports batch...
» more
Neo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Typical application scenariosVideo media : video understanding, video deduplication. E-commerce and mobile applications...
» more
Real-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Key customersMilvus is trusted by over 1,000 enterprises, including Baidu, eBay, IKEA, LINE, Shopee,...
» more
Over 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Market metricsAs of Oct 2022, 14k+ GitHub stars 2M+ downloads and installations 1000+ enterprise...
» more
Neo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsMilvus was released under the open-source Apache License 2.0 in October 2019. Fully-managed...
» more
GPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
News

Announcing Neo4j Graph Data Science 2.3
1 February 2023

This Week in Neo4j: VS Code Extension, Geospatial Data, Closeness Centrality, Project Management, and More!
28 January 2023

How to Graph an ERP System in 3 Easy Steps
26 January 2023

Graph Analytics: The Future in Data Science?
25 January 2023

This Week in Neo4j: OpenAI, Deploying on GCP, Neodash, Graph Algorithms, Python, and More
21 January 2023

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
MilvusNeo4jPostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

show all

Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2022, defending the title from last year
3 January 2023, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2021
3 January 2022, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
15 November 2021,  Umair Shahid, Percona (sponsor) 

show all

Conferences and events

PGCon 2023, PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers
Ottawa, Canada, 30 May 2023 - 2 June 2023

Recent citations in the news

Zilliz raises $60M for open source Milvus vector database
24 August 2022, TechTarget

Zilliz, the startup behind the Milvus open source vector database for AI apps, raises $60M, relocates to SF
24 August 2022, TechCrunch

Vector database startup Zilliz raises $60M in Series B funding ...
24 August 2022, SiliconANGLE News

Zilliz Announces Key Contributions to Milvus 2.1, the Leading Open ...
3 August 2022, businesswire.com

Zilliz Unfurls Managed Vector Database Service
29 November 2022, DevOps.com

provided by Google News

How to install the Neo4j Desktop app and connect it to a remote server
2 February 2023, TechRepublic

Gemini Data and Neo4j Announce Partnership to Deliver the World's ...
23 January 2023, PR Web

Neo4j Hires its First Chief Revenue Officer
5 January 2023, Analytics India Magazine

Neo4j Announces General Availability of its Next-Generation Graph ...
9 November 2022, PR Newswire

Try a Neo4j Graph Database Right Here, Right Now
9 December 2022, The New Stack

provided by Google News

What is PostgreSQL?
25 January 2023, Database Journal

Securing PostgreSQL from Cryptojacking Campaigns in Kubernetes
26 January 2023, CrowdStrike

Microsoft: Kubernetes clusters hacked in malware campaign via PostgreSQL
9 January 2023, BleepingComputer

Running Applications in Docker, Part 2: Table Joins in PostgreSQL
20 January 2023, Virtualization Review

10 Tips to Optimize PostgreSQL Queries in Your Django Project
11 January 2023, Security Boulevard

provided by Google News

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