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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. XTDB

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. XTDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonXTDB infoformerly named Crux  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLA general purpose database with bitemporal SQL and Datalog and graph queries
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score941.20
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score615.29
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score0.00
Rank#354  Overall
#50  Document stores
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orggithub.com/­xtdb/­xtdb
xtdb.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org/­docsxtdb.com/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerJuxt Ltd.
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2019
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201914.3, May 20221.19, September 2021
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoMIT License
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++CClojure
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
All OS with a Java 8 (and higher) VM
Linux
Data schemeyesyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes, extensible-data-notation format
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionslimited SQL, making use of Apache Calcite
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
HTTP REST
JDBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Clojure
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsyes, each node contains all data
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes, flexibel persistency by using storage technologies like Apache Kafka, RocksDB or LMDB
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesno
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLXTDB infoformerly named Crux
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