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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document storeDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1081.91
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score491.07
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score2.63
Rank#97  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOpenLink Software
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.1, November 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • EDB Postgres Cloud Database Service: Postgres cloud database service on AWS with Superuser Access, Unlimited Extensions, Higher Scalability, More Tuning Power and Oracle Compatibility. Try free!
  • ScaleGrid: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting with high availability, dedicated servers, and superuser control on the #1 multi-cloud Amazon RDS alternative.
Implementation languageC++CC
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yes
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale โ€” as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for โ€” Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including โ€” European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base โ€‹of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
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Dremio is like magic for SQL Server accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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ERBuilder provides all the features you would expect from a professional database modeling and design tool.
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DBHawk is a web-based data management Tool for a SQL Server database.
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SQLPro for MSSQL: A simple but powerful Microsoft SQL Server database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
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Navicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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CYBERTEC: your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science based on PostgreSQL since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide!
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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Dremio is like magic for PostgreSQL accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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SQLPro for PostgreSQL: A simple but powerful PostgreSQL database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
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DBHawk: a web-based PostgreSQL/Greenplum database tool. Boost database development and BI productivity with an online Universal database tool.
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2ndQuadrant: PostgreSQL Solutions for the Enterprise.
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Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLVirtuoso
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