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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. TiDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonTiDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLTiDB is an open source distributed Hybrid Transactional/Analytical Processing (HTAP) database that supports MySQL and Spark SQL syntaxes.
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score970.61
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score586.97
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score2.69
Rank#104  Overall
#53  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgpingcap.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.pingcap.com/­tidb/­stable
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerPingCAP, Inc.
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2016
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201914.0, September 20215.0.1, April 2021
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.TiDB Cloud: Fully-managed TiDB Service. Bring everything great about TiDB to the cloud.
Implementation languageC++CGo, Rust
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
JDBC
ODBC
Proprietary protocol
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashhorizontal partitioning (by key range)
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsUsing Raft consensus algorithm to ensure data replication with strong consistency among multiple replicas.
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes infowith TiSpark Connector
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesno infocurrently only supported in syntax
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept. No user groups or roles.
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLTiDB
Specific characteristicsTiDB is an open-source NewSQL database built by PingCAP. TiDB supports Hybrid Transactional...
» more
Competitive advantagesIn the current database landscape, infrastructure engineers often have to use one...
» more
Typical application scenariosTiDB is designed to support both OLTP and OLAP scenarios. You can use TiDB , the...
» more
Key customersShopee (E-commerce) BookMyShow.com (E-commerce) Yiguo.com (E-commerce) JD Cloud &...
» more
Market metrics25K+ GitHub Stars for TiDB, and 8K+ GitHub Stars for TiKV 1.6K+ members in TiDB Community...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsOpen Source Apache 2.0 with either commercial licensing or fully-hosted DB-as-a-service...
» more
News

Introducing the PingCAP External Referral Program
20 October 2021

How WebAssembly Powers Databases: Build a UDF Engine with WASM
18 October 2021

PingCAP's TiDB Cloud Attains GDPR Certification, Solidifying Its Position as a Trusted Global Database Provider
12 October 2021

TiDB Community joins Hacktoberfest 2021!
11 October 2021

The Benefits of a Hybrid Transactional and Analytical Processing Database
7 October 2021

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
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DB-Engines blog posts

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Conferences and events

Postgres Build 2021
Free Virtual Event, 30 November 2021 - 1 December 2021

Finished events

Latest Performance Features in PostgreSQL 14
On Demand Webinar, 14 October 2021 (finished)

PostgreSQL Performance Tuning Secrets
On Demand Webinar, 21 October 2021 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

The 4 Best SQL Server Tutorials to Watch on YouTube Right Now
27 September 2021, Solutions Review

SQL Server Performance Monitoring Tools and Software Market is Going to Boom | Solar Winds, Idera, Heroix Longitude
25 October 2021, Digital Journal

The Expanding SQL Server World: Powerful Platform Amplifies the Power of a Versatile Database
20 October 2021, Database Trends and Applications

That One Easy Trick for SQL Server Performance
28 September 2021, Redmondmag.com

It's time to get off Windows and SQL Server 2012 (or run them on Azure)
1 October 2021, TechRepublic

provided by Google News

Google Opens Up Spanner Database With PostgreSQL Interface
13 October 2021, The Next Platform

PostgreSQL 14 improves open source database performance
30 September 2021, TechTarget

PostgreSQL 14 brings performance boosts
1 October 2021, InfoWorld

Open-source veteran PostgreSQL emits release 14: Tweaked, scalable, and ready to get heavy
1 October 2021, The Register

PostgreSQL 14 is here - what should you look out for?
14 October 2021, JAXenter

provided by Google News

PingCAP announces Public Preview of TiDB Cloud USA - English
10 May 2021, PRNewswire

PingCAP, the open-source developer behind TiDB, closes $270 million Series D
17 November 2020, TechCrunch

PingCAP Announces TiDB Cloud, Bringing Fully-Managed TiDB Service to AWS and GCP
23 June 2020, PRNewswire

TiDB developer PingCAP wants to expand in North America after raising $50M Series C
11 September 2018, TechCrunch

How TiDB combines OLTP and OLAP in a distributed database
17 October 2018, InfoWorld

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