DB-EnginesInfluxDB download bannerEnglish
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph vs. Virtuoso

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 APIVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMSGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document storeDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1075.87
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score536.77
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.36
Rank#144  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.15
Rank#281  Overall
#24  Graph DBMS
Score2.65
Rank#105  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#51  Relational DBMS
#3  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlinvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-UnionOpenLink Software
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201020091998
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 20207.3.0, May 20208.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageC++CJavaJavaC
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-freeyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possiblenoyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialnoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Servernoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javanoyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyes infovia event handlersnoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replication in HA-ClusternoneChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-ClusternoneImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDnoACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesnoyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesoptionalyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnoyesyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesnoFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraphVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
» more

General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
» more

DBHawk: Secure access to SQL, NoSQL and Cloud databases with an all-in-one solution.
» more

Navicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
» more
Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
» more

2ndQuadrant: Mission Critical Databases.
» more

CYBERTEC: your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science based on PostgreSQL since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide!
» more

General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
» more

pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
» more

Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraphVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

MySQL is the DBMS of the Year 2019
3 January 2020, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

The struggle for the hegemony in Oracle's database empire
2 May 2017, Paul Andlinger

Microsoft SQL Server is the DBMS of the Year
4 January 2017, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

show all

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
2 January 2019, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2017
2 January 2018, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Microsoft SQL Server is the DBMS of the Year
4 January 2017, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

show all

Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Online Trainings
Online Training Courses, 4 May 2020 - 11 December 2020

Recent citations in the news

How Resumable Indexes in SQL Server 2019 Makes Your Job Easier - Microsoft
4 August 2020, Channel 9

Learning How to Transition Your SQL Server Skills to Azure SQL - Microsoft
6 August 2020, Channel 9

DH2i to Address How to Mitigate Microsoft SQL Server Costs Amidst Pandemic-Ravaged Budgets
28 July 2020, PRNewswire

Understanding Columnstore Indexes in SQL Server
22 July 2020, Redmondmag.com

Benchmarking SQL Server and Azure SQL with WorkloadTools | Data Exposed - Microsoft
21 July 2020, Channel 9

provided by Google News

Swarm64 Announces Strategic Partnership With Command Prompt, Inc.
6 August 2020, Business Wire

Crunchy Certified PostgreSQL 12 Achieves In Evaluation Status for Common Criteria Certification
21 July 2020, PRNewswire

Using logical replication to replicate managed Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL and Amazon Aurora to self-managed PostgreSQL
29 July 2020, idk.dev

maintain a postgresql database using osm2pgsql - Linux & Unix
3 August 2020, BleepingComputer

PostgreSQL Multi-Model Graph Extension Announced
13 July 2020, iProgrammer

provided by Google News

Amazon Neptune review: A scalable graph database for OLTP
13 May 2019, InfoWorld

Save Joern — Open Source at ShiftLeft
8 May 2018, Security Boulevard

provided by Google News

Job opportunities

SQL Server database developer
Health & Human Services Comm, Austin, TX

Sql Server Developer
SDH Systems, Redmond, WA

SQL Server Database Administrators
Ziras Technologies, Newark, DE

Production SQL Server DBA
Covestic, Seattle, WA

SQL Server Developer
Systems Plus, Washington, DC

Jr. QA Analyst Trainee
SQA², Los Alamitos, CA

Data Technician (Full- or Part-Time)
Thasos Group, New York, NY

GIS Analyst
Denver Regional Council of Governments, Denver, CO

Fall 2020 DNC Technology Internship
Democratic National Committee, Washington, DC

Scala Engineer (all levels) - Remote
Axoni, New York, NY

Principal Software Architect
Wabtec, Fort Worth, TX

jobs by Indeed




Share this page

Featured Products

MariaDB logo

SkySQL, the ultimate
MariaDB cloud, is here.

Get started with SkySQL today!

AllegroGraph logo

Graph Database Leader for AI Knowledge Graph Applications - The Most Secure Graph Database Available.
Free Download

Neo4j logo

Get your free copy of the new O'Reilly book Graph Algorithms with 20+ examples for
machine learning, graph analytics and more.

Couchbase logo

SQL + JSON + NoSQL.
Power, flexibility & scale.
All open source.
Get started now.

Datastax Astra logo

Cassandra made easy in the cloud. Build cloud-native applications faster with CQL, REST and GraphQL APIs.
Try for Free.

Present your product here