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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Spark SQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Spark SQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSpark SQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLSpark SQL is a component on top of 'Spark Core' for structured data processingEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1075.87
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score536.77
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score18.62
Rank#34  Overall
#21  Relational DBMS
Score1.36
Rank#144  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.15
Rank#281  Overall
#24  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgspark.apache.org/­sqlwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualsspark.apache.org/­docs/­latest/­sql-programming-guide.htmlwww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerApache Software FoundationStardog-Union
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201420102009
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 20203.0.0, June 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0commercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++CScalaJavaJava
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.nono infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesyesyesnoyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialno
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsSQL-like DML and DDL statementsYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
JDBC
ODBC
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Java
Python
R
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.nouser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
Triggersyesyesnoyes infovia event handlersno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes, utilizing Spark Corenonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnoneMulti-source replication in HA-Clusternone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Clusternone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesnoyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDnoACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnonoyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoAccess rights for users and rolesno
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSpark SQLStardogTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

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