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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Snowflake vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Snowflake vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSnowflake  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLCloud-based data warehousing service for structured and semi-structured dataEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1075.87
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score536.77
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score2.59
Rank#107  Overall
#53  Relational DBMS
Score1.36
Rank#144  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.15
Rank#281  Overall
#24  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.snowflake.comwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualsdocs.snowflake.net/­manuals/­index.htmlwww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerSnowflake Computing Inc.Stardog-Union
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201420102009
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercialcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageC++CJavaJava
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
hostedLinux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infosupport of semi-structured data formats (JSON, XML, Avro)schema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yesno infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialno
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyesYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
CLI Client
JDBC
ODBC
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
Triggersyesyesno infosimilar concept for controling cloud resourcesyes infovia event handlersno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyesnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsyesMulti-source replication in HA-Clusternone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Clusternone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnonoyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept, user roles and pluggable authenticationAccess rights for users and rolesno
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSnowflakeStardogTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

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More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSnowflakeStardogTinkerGraph
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