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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Snowflake

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Snowflake

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSnowflake  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLCloud-based data warehousing service for structured and semi-structured data
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score944.96
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score618.00
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score103.12
Rank#13  Overall
#9  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.snowflake.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.snowflake.net/­manuals/­index.html
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerSnowflake Computing Inc.
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2014
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201914.5, August 2022
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonoyes
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed and hosted PostgreSQL® with 70+ extensions and orchestration tooling included.
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL DBaaS hosting On-Premises and on clouds such as AWS, Azure, GCP and DigitalOcean with no vendor lock-in. Leverage any extension and get SSH access.
Implementation languageC++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
hosted
Data schemeyesyesyes infosupport of semi-structured data formats (JSON, XML, Avro)
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yes
Secondary indexesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
CLI Client
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions
Triggersyesyesno infosimilar concept for controling cloud resources
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsyes
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept, user roles and pluggable authentication

More information provided by the system vendor

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More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSnowflake
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