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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSQLite  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLWidely used in-process RDBMSEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1062.76
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score542.29
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score126.68
Rank#9  Overall
#6  Relational DBMS
Score1.45
Rank#144  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.sqlite.orgwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.sqlite.org/­docs.htmlwww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerDwayne Richard HippStardog-Union
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL20002010
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.4, August 20203.33.0 (August 14, 2020), August 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoPublic Domaincommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageC++CCJava
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
server-lessLinux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infodynamic column typesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes infonot rigid because of 'dynamic typing' concept.yes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.nono infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92 is not fully supportedYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET infoinofficial driver
JDBC infoinofficial driver
ODBC infoinofficial driver
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Actionscript
Ada
Basic
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Forth
Fortran
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Lua
MatLab
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
PL/SQL
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Scheme
Smalltalk
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.nouser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
Triggersyesyesyesyes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnoneMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes infovia file-system locksyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnoyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoAccess rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSQLiteStardog
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
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Navicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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CYBERTEC: your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science based on PostgreSQL since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide!
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2ndQuadrant: Mission Critical Databases.
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Navicat for SQLite is a powerful and comprehensive SQLite GUI that provides a complete set of functions for database management and development.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLSQLiteStardog
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