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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. RavenDB vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. RavenDB vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonRavenDB  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLOpen Source Operational and Transactional Enterprise NoSQL Document DatabaseEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document storeGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document storeGraph DBMS infoexperimental
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1075.87
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score536.77
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score4.21
Rank#78  Overall
#13  Document stores
Score1.36
Rank#144  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.15
Rank#281  Overall
#24  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgravendb.netwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualsravendb.net/­docswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerHibernating RhinosStardog-Union
Initial release19891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL201020102009
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 20204.2, May 20197.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoAGPL version 3, commercial license availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
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RavenDB Cloud: Deploy a fully managed RavenDB Cloud Database in minutes on AWS, Azure, and GCP. Enjoy a globally distributed cluster with enterprise-grade security and reduce cloud storage costs by 50% with Native data compression.
Implementation languageC++CC#JavaJava
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Raspberry Pi
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-freeschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesnoyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialno
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsSQL-like query language (RQL)Yes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
.NET Client API
Java Client API
Python Client API
RESTful HTTP API
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C#
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Ruby
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yesuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
Triggersyesyesyesyes infovia event handlersno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashShardingnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replicationMulti-source replication in HA-Clusternone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes infoMapReduce functions can be defined in Linqnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyEventual ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Clusternone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesnoyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID, Cluster-wide transaction availableACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnoyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess control on document level using the Authorization BundleAccess rights for users and rolesno
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLRavenDBStardogTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsRavenDB is the pioneer NoSQL Document Database that is fully transactional (ACID)...
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesRavenDB is easy to setup and secure. You can do it in a matter of minutes . Easy...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosIoT for Edge Deployments Fraud Detection Recommendation Engines Product Catalogs...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersToyota, Capgemini, Vodafone, Medicaid, Asos, Nomura, RMS Automotive, MSNBC, Pluralsight,...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metrics2 million+ downloads 1000+ customers including Fortune 500 large enterprises
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsRavenDB is available on-premise and in the cloud. RavenDB Cloud is available on AWS...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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