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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle Rdb vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle Rdb vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonOracle Rdb  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score853.57
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1.42
Rank#176  Overall
#82  Relational DBMS
Score629.41
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.oracle.com/­database/­technologies/­related/­rdb.htmlwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationlearn.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.oracle.com/­database/­technologies/­related/­rdb-doc.htmlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftOracle, originally developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release198919841989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseSQL Server 2022, November 20227.4.1.1, 202116.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
Implementation languageC++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
HP Open VMSFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesFlexible Schema (defined schema, partial schema, schema free)yes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesnoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDyes, on a single nodeACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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3rd partiesNavicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
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Instaclustr: Fully Hosted & Managed PostgreSQL
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More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerOracle RdbPostgreSQL
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