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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. SAP HANA vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. SAP HANA vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonSAP HANA  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used RDBMSIn-memory, column based data store. Available as appliance or cloud serviceVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Spatial DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith SAP Hana, Enterprise Edition
Spatial DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score991.07
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1270.94
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score54.11
Rank#19  Overall
#12  Relational DBMS
Score3.69
Rank#86  Overall
#14  Document stores
#5  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.oracle.com/­databasewww.sap.com/­products/­hana.htmlvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasehelp.sap.com/­hanadocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperMicrosoftOracleSAPOpenLink Software
Initial release1989198020101998
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201919c, February 20192.0 SPS05 (June 26, 2020), June 202008.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercialOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono infoalso available as a cloud based serviceno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++C and C++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Appliance or cloud-serviceAIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyesnoyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyesyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) JavaPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleSQLScript, Ryes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationSharding, horizontal partitioningyesyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
yesChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnono infocan be realized in PL/SQLnoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardyesFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerOracleSAP HANAVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerOracleSAP HANAVirtuoso
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