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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used RDBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1094.72
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1355.88
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score483.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.oracle.com/­databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationdocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasewww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manuals
DeveloperMicrosoftOraclePostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release198919801989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseSQL Server 2017, October 201719c, February 201912.0, October 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
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Implementation languageC++C and C++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsOLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
JDBC
ODBC
native C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) JavaPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationhorizontal partitioning infowith the optional Oracle Partitioningpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMaster-master replication
Master-slave replication
Master-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnono infocan be realized in PL/SQLno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'no
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerOraclePostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsOracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsOracle Database Cloud Services Customers can choose from a wide range of database...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
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2ndQuadrant: PostgreSQL Solutions for the Enterprise.
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SQLPro for PostgreSQL: A simple but powerful PostgreSQL database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
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Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerOraclePostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

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PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
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Microsoft SQL Server is the DBMS of the Year
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Conferences and events

PASS Summit 2019
Seattle, Washington, USA, 5-8 November 2019

Recent citations in the news

Winnti Group's skip‑2.0: A Microsoft SQL Server backdoor
21 October 2019, We Live Security

Microsoft Expands IoT And Edge Computing Portfolio With Windows And SQL Server
16 October 2019, Forbes

SQL Server takes a turn towards Kubernetes and big data
30 September 2019, TechRepublic

Like Visual Studio Code and your data lives in SQL Server? Microsoft has something for you
18 October 2019, The Register

Accelerating Database Recovery with SQL Server 2019
14 October 2019, Database Journal

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Amazon kisses last Oracle database goodbye, completes years-long migration
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4 Technology Shifts That Are Reshaping The Enterprise Database
26 September 2019, Forbes

Amazon Pulls Plug on Oracle Databases
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Oracle exits OpenWorld 2019 with a lot riding on Autonomous Database, Oracle Cloud conversions, services pivot
23 September 2019, ZDNet

Why Oracle Plans Private Data Centers for Large Customers
4 October 2019, eWeek

provided by Google News

PostgreSQL 12 boosts open source database performance
14 October 2019, TechTarget

PostgreSQL 12 Released
14 October 2019, iProgrammer

2ndQuadrant Contributes Major Features to PostgreSQL 12
3 October 2019, PRNewswire

PostgreSQL puts the pedal to the metal with some smart indexing tweaks in version 12
4 October 2019, The Register

PostgreSQL turns performance up for v12 release
3 October 2019, DevClass

provided by Google News

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