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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. MySQL vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. MySQL vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonMySQL  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMSWidely used RDBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infoKey/Value like access via memcached APIRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document storeDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1038.09
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1255.45
Rank#2  Overall
#2  Relational DBMS
Score1325.60
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score547.57
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.mysql.comwww.oracle.com/­databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdev.mysql.com/­docdocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasewww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperMicrosoftOracle infosince 2010, originally MySQL AB, then SunOraclePostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release1989199519801989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 20198.0.22, 202019c, February 201913.1, November 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoGPL version 2. Commercial licenses with extended functionallity are availablecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for MySQL: Fully managed MySQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageC++C and C++C and C++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyesyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Proprietary native API
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javayes infoproprietary syntaxPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationhorizontal partitioning, sharding with MySQL Cluster or MySQL Fabrichorizontal partitioning infowith the optional Oracle Partitioningpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono infocan be realized in PL/SQLno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyes infonot for MyISAM storage engineyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infonot for MyISAM storage engineACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyes infotable locks or row locks depending on storage engineyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'no
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept infono user groups or rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerMySQLOraclePostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsOracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsOracle Database Cloud Services Customers can choose from a wide range of database...
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and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
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DBHawk: Secure access to SQL, NoSQL and Cloud databases with an all-in-one solution.
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Navicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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ClusterControl: the only management system you’ll ever need to take control of your open source database infrastructure.
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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Datadog: Improve MySQL performance by visualizing and identifying errors fast using granular, out-of-the-box dashboards.
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Navicat for MySQL is the ideal solution for MySQL/MariaDB administration and development.
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DBHawk: Secure access to SQL, NoSQL and Cloud databases with an all-in-one solution.
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2ndQuadrant: Mission Critical Databases.
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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CYBERTEC: your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science based on PostgreSQL since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide!
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ClusterControl: the only management system you’ll ever need to take control of your open source database infrastructure.
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerMySQLOraclePostgreSQL
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