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DBMS > Microsoft SQL Server vs. MongoDB vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Microsoft SQL Server vs. MongoDB vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonMongoDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionMicrosofts relational DBMSOne of the most popular document stores available both as a fully managed cloud service and for deployment on self-managed infrastructureWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument storeRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Search engine infointegrated Lucene index, currently in MongoDB Atlas only.Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1094.72
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score412.09
Rank#5  Overall
#1  Document stores
Score483.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.mongodb.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationdocs.mongodb.com/­manualwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manuals
DeveloperMicrosoftMongoDB, IncPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release198920091989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseSQL Server 2017, October 20174.2, August 201912.0, October 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoMongoDB Inc.'s Server Side Public License v1. Prior versions were published under GNU AGPL v3.0. Commercial licenses are also available.Open Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenono infoMongoDB available as DBaaS (MongoDB Atlas)no
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
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Implementation languageC++C++C
Server operating systemsLinux
Windows
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free infoAlthough schema-free, documents of the same collection often follow the same structure. Optionally impose all or part of a schema by defining a JSON schema.yes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infostring, integer, double, decimal, boolean, date, object_id, geospatialyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesRead-only SQL queries via the MongoDB Connector for BIyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsOLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
proprietary protocol using JSONnative C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
Actionscript infoinofficial driver
C
C#
C++
Clojure infoinofficial driver
ColdFusion infoinofficial driver
D infoinofficial driver
Dart infoinofficial driver
Delphi infoinofficial driver
Erlang
Go
Groovy infoinofficial driver
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp infoinofficial driver
Lua infoinofficial driver
MatLab infoinofficial driver
Perl
PHP
PowerShell infoinofficial driver
Prolog infoinofficial driver
Python
R infoinofficial driver
Ruby
Scala
Smalltalk infoinofficial driver
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) JavaJavaScriptuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyes infoin MongoDB Atlas onlyyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodestables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationSharding infopartitioned by hashed, ranged, or zoned sharding keyspartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMaster-slave replicationMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnoyesno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesno infotypically not used, however similar functionality with DBRef possibleyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDMulti-document ACID Transactions with snapshot isolationACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes infooptionalyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes infoIn-memory storage engine introduced with MongoDB version 3.2no
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
Microsoft SQL ServerMongoDBPostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsMongoDB is the leading modern, general purpose data platform, designed to unleash...
» more
Competitive advantagesThe MongoDB Data Platform can be used by developers building OLTP and analytical...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things and Time Series (Bosch, Jaguar Land Rover) Mobile (The Weather...
» more
Key customersADP, Adobe, Amadeus, AstraZeneca, Auto Trader, Barclays, BBVA, Bosch, Cisco, CERN,...
» more
Market metrics70 million downloads (growing at more than 30 thousand downloads per day). 15,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsMongoDB database server: Server-Side Public License (SSPL) . Commercial licenses...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
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SQLPro for MSSQL: A simple but powerful Microsoft SQL Server database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
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Dremio is like magic for SQL Server accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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ERBuilder provides all the features you would expect from a professional database modeling and design tool.
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Navicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
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DBHawk is a web-based data management Tool for a SQL Server database.
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DBHawk: Powerful web-based MongoDB GUI. Connect securely to on-premise MongoDB or MongoDB on the Cloud, Atlas or mLab.
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Dremio: Analyze your data with standard SQL and any BI tool. Accelerate your queries up to 1,000x.
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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Studio 3T: The world's favorite IDE for working with MongoDB
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Knowi: Build MongoDB Reports and Data Visualizations in Minutes with Native Integration
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Navicat for MongoDB gives you a highly effective GUI interface for MongoDB database management, administration and development.
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ScaleGrid: Deploy, monitor, backup and scale MongoDB in the cloud with the #1 Database-as-a-Service (DBaaS) platform.
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2ndQuadrant: PostgreSQL Solutions for the Enterprise.
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Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
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Azure Database for PostgreSQL provides fully managed, enterprise-ready community PostgreSQL database as a service
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pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
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SQLPro for PostgreSQL: A simple but powerful PostgreSQL database client available on iPhone and iPad as well as macOS.
» more

DBHawk: a web-based PostgreSQL/Greenplum database tool. Boost database development and BI productivity with an online Universal database tool.
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General SQL Parser: Instantly adding parsing, decoding, analysis and rewrite SQL processing capability to your products.
» more

Dremio is like magic for PostgreSQL accelerating your analytical queries up to 1,000x.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Microsoft SQL ServerMongoDBPostgreSQL
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Conferences and events

PASS Summit 2019
Seattle, Washington, USA, 5-8 November 2019

PostgreSQL Conference, Europe 2019
Milan, Italy, 15-18 October 2019

Recent citations in the news

Microsoft Expands IoT And Edge Computing Portfolio With Windows And SQL Server
16 October 2019, Forbes

SQL Server takes a turn towards Kubernetes and big data
30 September 2019, TechRepublic

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PostgreSQL 12 boosts open source database performance
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Percona Announces New Distribution of PostgreSQL to Provide Expanded Support for Open Source Databases
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