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DBMS > Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameLovefield  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionEmbeddable relational database for web apps written in pure JavaScriptOpen source graph databaseWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph and graph DBMS with high availability and high performance reasoning
Primary database modelRelational DBMSGraph DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.19
Rank#259  Overall
#122  Relational DBMS
Score49.46
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score483.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score0.76
Rank#168  Overall
#13  Graph DBMS
#7  RDF stores
Websitegoogle.github.io/­lovefieldneo4j.comwww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationgithub.com/­google/­lovefield/­blob/­master/­docs/­spec_index.mdneo4j.com/­docswww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperGoogleNeo4j, Inc.PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-Union
Initial release201420071989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2010
Current release2.1.12, February 20173.5.8, July 201912.0, October 20196.2.3, July 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaScriptJava, ScalaCJava
Server operating systemsserver-less, requires a JavaScript environment (browser, Node.js) infotested with Chrome, Firefox, IE, SafariLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free and schema-optionalyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like query language infovia JavaScript builder patternnoyes infostandard with numerous extensionsSPARQL is used as query language
APIs and other access methodsBolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
native C library
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesJavaScript.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
TriggersUsing read-only observersyes infovia event handleryesyes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMaster-master replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyes infoRelationships in graphsyesyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes, by using IndexedDB or the cloud service Firebase Realtime Databaseyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes infousing MemoryDBnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlnoUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
LovefieldNeo4jPostgreSQLStardog
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is a knowledge graph platform backed by a performant, scalable graph database....
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog is uniquely designed to aid in data integration for your complex data. Benefits...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
News

This Week in Neo4j – We need your GraphConnect 2020 talks, New Educator Program, Tuning Cypher, How do British MPs vote?
19 October 2019

#GraphCast: Bloom Series
18 October 2019

GraphConnect 2020: Call for Papers Closing November 15
17 October 2019

How Boston Scientific Improves Manufacturing Quality Using Graph Analytics
16 October 2019

Overcoming CCPA Compliance Challenges: What Is CCPA?
14 October 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
LovefieldNeo4jPostgreSQLStardog
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Conferences and events

GraphConnect 2020
New York, USA, 20-22 April 2020

PostgreSQL Conference, Europe 2019
Milan, Italy, 15-18 October 2019 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

Lovefield: An SQL-like Query Engine by Google
18 November 2014, InfoQ.com

3 JavaScript ORMs You Might Not Know
7 October 2015, SitePoint

provided by Google News

Neo4j equips educators with data graphing teaching tools
10 October 2019, TechRepublic

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PostgreSQL 12 boosts open source database performance
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PostgreSQL 12 Released
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2ndQuadrant Contributes Major Features to PostgreSQL 12
3 October 2019, PRNewswire

PostgreSQL turns performance up for v12 release
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4 October 2019, The Register

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