DBMS > LevelDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso
System Properties Comparison LevelDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||LevelDB Xexclude from comparison||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||Virtuoso Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||Embeddable fast key-value storage library that provides an ordered mapping from string keys to string values||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs|
|Primary database model||Key-value store||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Document store|
Native XML DBMS
|Secondary database models||Document store|
|Developer||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||OpenLink Software|
|Initial release||2011||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||1998|
|Current release||1.23, February 2021||14.5, August 2022||7.2.7, May 2022|
|License Commercial or Open Source||Open Source BSD||Open Source BSD||Open Source GPLv2, extended commercial license available|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||no||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Server operating systems||Illumos|
|Data scheme||schema-free||yes||yes SQL - Standard relational schema |
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||no||yes||yes|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||no||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.||yes|
|SQL Support of SQL||no||yes standard with numerous extensions||yes SQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX|
|APIs and other access methods||ADO.NET|
native C library
streaming API for large objects
Jena RDF API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
|Supported programming languages||C++|
Java 3rd party binding
Python 3rd party binding
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||no||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.||yes Virtuoso PL|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||none||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash||yes|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||none||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions||Chain, star, and bi-directional replication|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||no||no||yes|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||no||yes||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||no||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes with automatic compression on writes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||yes|
|User concepts Access control||no||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||Fine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)|
|More information provided by the system vendor|
|Specific characteristics||Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...|
|Competitive advantages||Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...|
|Typical application scenarios||Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...|
|Key customers||Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...|
|Market metrics||Largest installed-base of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...|
|Licensing and pricing models||Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...|
We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
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