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DBMS > LevelDB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Stardog vs. TempoIQ

System Properties Comparison LevelDB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Stardog vs. TempoIQ

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameLevelDB  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTempoIQ infoformerly TempoDB  Xexclude from comparison
TempoIQ seems to be decommissioned. It will be removed from the DB-Engines ranking.
DescriptionEmbeddable fast key-value storage library that provides an ordered mapping from string keys to string valuesDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationScalable analytics DBMS for sensor data, provided as a service (SaaS)
Primary database modelKey-value storeRelational DBMSRelational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Time Series DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.08
Rank#98  Overall
#16  Key-value stores
Score86.32
Rank#14  Overall
#9  Relational DBMS
Score944.81
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1.89
Rank#124  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Websitegithub.com/­google/­leveldbazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.stardog.comtempoiq.com (offline)
Technical documentationgithub.com/­google/­leveldb/­blob/­master/­doc/­index.mddocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqldocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdocs.stardog.com
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftMicrosoftStardog-UnionTempoIQ
Initial release20112010198920102012
Current release1.23, February 2021V12SQL Server 2019, November 20197.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoBSDcommercialcommercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentscommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnonoyes
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++C++C++Java
Server operating systemsIllumos
Linux
OS X
Windows
hostedLinux
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or datenoyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyesno infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesnoyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyesyesYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
HTTP API
Supported programming languagesC++
Go
Java info3rd party binding
JavaScript (Node.js) info3rd party binding
Python info3rd party binding
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
C#
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoTransact SQLTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
Triggersnoyesyesyes infovia event handlersyes infoRealtime Alerts
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonetables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnoneyes, with always 3 replicas availableyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyesyes inforelationships in graphsno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith automatic compression on writesyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlnofine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolessimple authentication-based access control
More information provided by the system vendor
LevelDBMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureMicrosoft SQL ServerStardogTempoIQ infoformerly TempoDB
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
LevelDBMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureMicrosoft SQL ServerStardogTempoIQ infoformerly TempoDB
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