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DBMS > LevelDB vs. Lovefield vs. Tarantool vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison LevelDB vs. Lovefield vs. Tarantool vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameLevelDB  Xexclude from comparisonLovefield  Xexclude from comparisonTarantool  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionEmbeddable fast key-value storage library that provides an ordered mapping from string keys to string valuesEmbeddable relational database for web apps written in pure JavaScriptIn-memory database with an integrated application serverVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelKey-value storeRelational DBMSKey-value storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Relational DBMS
Spatial DBMS infowith Tarantool/GIS extension
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.08
Rank#98  Overall
#16  Key-value stores
Score0.27
Rank#275  Overall
#127  Relational DBMS
Score1.58
Rank#137  Overall
#25  Key-value stores
Score5.37
Rank#73  Overall
#10  Document stores
#3  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#40  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#8  Search engines
Websitegithub.com/­google/­leveldbgoogle.github.io/­lovefieldwww.tarantool.iovirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationgithub.com/­google/­leveldb/­blob/­master/­doc/­index.mdgithub.com/­google/­lovefield/­blob/­master/­docs/­spec_index.mdwww.tarantool.io/­en/­docdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperGoogleGoogleMail.ru GroupOpenLink Software
Initial release2011201420081998
Current release1.23, February 20212.1.12, February 20172.4.2, July 202008.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++JavaScriptC and C++C
Server operating systemsIllumos
Linux
OS X
Windows
server-less, requires a JavaScript environment (browser, Node.js) infotested with Chrome, Firefox, IE, SafariBSD
Linux
macOS
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesschema-free, schema definition possibleyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or datenoyesstring, double, decimal, uuid, integer, blob, booleanyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nononoyes
Secondary indexesnoyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoSQL-like query language infovia JavaScript builder patternFull-featured ANSI SQL supportyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsOpen binary protocolADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC++
Go
Java info3rd party binding
JavaScript (Node.js) info3rd party binding
Python info3rd party binding
JavaScriptC
C#
C++
Erlang
Go
Java
JavaScript
Lua
Perl
PHP
Python
Rust
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonoLua, C and SQL stored proceduresyes infoVirtuoso PL
TriggersnoUsing read-only observersyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenoneHash sharding based on virtual bucketsyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnonenoneMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
Chain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes, with SQLyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACID, read commitedACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes, cooperative multitaskingyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith automatic compression on writesyes, by using IndexedDB or the cloud service Firebase Realtime Databaseyes, regular snapshots on disk, write ahead loggingyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes infousing MemoryDByes, full featured in-memory storage engine with persistenceyes
User concepts infoAccess controlnonoAccess rights for users and rolesFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
LevelDBLovefieldTarantoolVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
LevelDBLovefieldTarantoolVirtuoso
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