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DBMS > Ingres vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. MySQL vs. Oracle

System Properties Comparison Ingres vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. MySQL vs. Oracle

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameIngres  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonMySQL  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWell established RDBMSMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMSWidely used RDBMS
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infoKey/Value like access via memcached APIRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Spatial DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score5.75
Rank#74  Overall
#39  Relational DBMS
Score924.68
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1205.38
Rank#2  Overall
#2  Relational DBMS
Score1236.37
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.actian.com/­data-management/­ingres-sql-rdbmswww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.mysql.comwww.oracle.com/­database
Technical documentationdocs.actian.com/­ingresdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdev.mysql.com/­docdocs.oracle.com/­en/­database
DeveloperActian CorporationMicrosoftOracle infosince 2010, originally MySQL AB, then SunOracle
Initial release1974 infooriginally developed at University Berkely in early 1970s198919951980
Current release11.0, April 2017SQL Server 2019, November 20198.0.30, July 202219c, February 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoGPL version 2. Commercial licenses with extended functionallity are availablecommercial inforestricted free version is available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageCC++C and C++C and C++
Server operating systemsAIX
HP Open VMS
HP-UX
Linux
Solaris
Windows
Linux
Windows
FreeBSD
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Data schemeyesyesyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columns
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.no infobut tools for importing/exporting data from/to XML-files availableyesyesyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infowith proprietary extensions
APIs and other access methods.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
proprietary protocol (OpenAPI)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Proprietary native API
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
Ada
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Haskell
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scheme
Tcl
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javayes infoproprietary syntaxPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possible
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodeshorizontal partitioning infoIngres Star to access multiple databases simultaneouslytables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationhorizontal partitioning, sharding with MySQL Cluster or MySQL FabricSharding, horizontal partitioning
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesIngres Replicatoryes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono infocan be realized in PL/SQL
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes infonot for MyISAM storage engineyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID infonot for MyISAM storage engineACID infoisolation level can be parameterized
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes infoMVCCyesyes infotable locks or row locks depending on storage engineyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers with fine-grained authorization concept infono user groups or rolesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
IngresMicrosoft SQL ServerMySQLOracle
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