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DBMS > Ingres vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL vs. RDF4J

System Properties Comparison Ingres vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL vs. RDF4J

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameIngres  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonRDF4J infoformerly known as Sesame  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWell established RDBMSDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLRDF4J is a Java framework for processing RDF data, supporting both memory-based and a disk-based storage.
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score5.77
Rank#68  Overall
#37  Relational DBMS
Score86.32
Rank#14  Overall
#9  Relational DBMS
Score606.56
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score0.68
Rank#211  Overall
#9  RDF stores
Websitewww.actian.com/­data-management/­ingres-sql-rdbmsazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.postgresql.orgrdf4j.org
Technical documentationdocs.actian.com/­ingresdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqlwww.postgresql.org/­docsrdf4j.org/­documentation
DeveloperActian CorporationMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerSince 2016 officially forked into an Eclipse project, former developer was Aduna Software.
Initial release1974 infooriginally developed at University Berkely in early 1970s20101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2004
Current release11.0, April 2017V1214.1, November 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialcommercialOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoEclipse Distribution License (EDL), v1.0.
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageCC++CJava
Server operating systemsAIX
HP Open VMS
HP-UX
Linux
Solaris
Windows
hostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
OS X
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyesyes infoRDF Schemas
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.no infobut tools for importing/exporting data from/to XML-files availableyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsno
APIs and other access methods.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
proprietary protocol (OpenAPI)
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Java API
RIO infoRDF Input/Output
Sail API
SeRQL infoSesame RDF Query Language
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL
Supported programming languages.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Java
PHP
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yes
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodeshorizontal partitioning infoIngres Star to access multiple databases simultaneouslypartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesIngres Replicatoryes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID infoIsolation support depends on the API used
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes infoMVCCyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes infoin-memory storage is supported as well
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardno

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More resources
IngresMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzurePostgreSQLRDF4J infoformerly known as Sesame
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