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DBMS > Ingres vs. Microsoft Access vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Ingres vs. Microsoft Access vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameIngres  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Access  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWell established RDBMSMicrosoft Access combines a backend RDBMS (JET / ACE Engine) with a GUI frontend for data manipulation and queries. infoThe Access frontend is often used for accessing other datasources (DBMS, Excel, etc.)Widely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score4.11
Rank#81  Overall
#44  Relational DBMS
Score104.92
Rank#11  Overall
#8  Relational DBMS
Score645.54
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.actian.com/­databases/­ingreswww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­microsoft-365/­accesswww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdocs.actian.com/­ingresdeveloper.microsoft.com/­en-us/­accesswww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperActian CorporationMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release1974 infooriginally developed at University Berkely in early 1970s19921989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release11.2, May 20221902 (16.0.11328.20222), March 201916.3, May 2024
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial infoBundled with Microsoft OfficeOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageCC++C
Server operating systemsAIX
HP Open VMS
HP-UX
Linux
Solaris
Windows
Windows infoNot a real database server, but making use of DLLsFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.no infobut tools for importing/exporting data from/to XML-files availableyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infobut not compliant to any SQL standardyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methods.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
proprietary protocol (OpenAPI)
ADO.NET
DAO
ODBC
OLE DB
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC
C#
C++
Delphi
Java (JDBC-ODBC)
VBA
Visual Basic.NET
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesyes infosince Access 2010 using the ACE-engineuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyes infosince Access 2010 using the ACE-engineyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodeshorizontal partitioning infoIngres Star to access multiple databases simultaneouslynonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesIngres ReplicatornoneSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infobut no files for transaction loggingACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes infoMVCCyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes infobut no files for transaction loggingyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardno infoa simple user-level security was built in till version Access 2003fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
IngresMicrosoft AccessPostgreSQL
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