DB-EnginesInfluxDB download bannerEnglish
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > Ingres vs. Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Ingres vs. Lovefield vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

Please select another system to include it in the comparison.

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameIngres  Xexclude from comparisonLovefield  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWell established RDBMSEmbeddable relational database for web apps written in pure JavaScriptOpen source graph databaseEnterprise Knowledge Graph and graph DBMS with high availability and high performance reasoning
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score5.57
Rank#54  Overall
#32  Relational DBMS
Score0.19
Rank#259  Overall
#122  Relational DBMS
Score49.46
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score0.76
Rank#168  Overall
#13  Graph DBMS
#7  RDF stores
Websitewww.actian.com/­data-management/­ingres-sql-rdbmsgoogle.github.io/­lovefieldneo4j.comwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationdocs.actian.com/­ingresgithub.com/­google/­lovefield/­blob/­master/­docs/­spec_index.mdneo4j.com/­docswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperActian CorporationGoogleNeo4j, Inc.Stardog-Union
Initial release1974 infooriginally developed at University Berkely in early 1970s201420072010
Current release11.0, April 20172.1.12, February 20173.5.8, July 20196.2.3, July 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCJavaScriptJava, ScalaJava
Server operating systemsAIX
HP Open VMS
HP-UX
Linux
Solaris
Windows
server-less, requires a JavaScript environment (browser, Node.js) infotested with Chrome, Firefox, IE, SafariLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.no infobut tools for importing/exporting data from/to XML-files availablenono infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesSQL-like query language infovia JavaScript builder patternnoSPARQL is used as query language
APIs and other access methods.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
proprietary protocol (OpenAPI)
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesJavaScript.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
TriggersyesUsing read-only observersyes infovia event handleryes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodeshorizontal partitioning infoIngres Star to access multiple databases simultaneouslynonenonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesIngres ReplicatornoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMaster-master replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes infoMVCCyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes, by using IndexedDB or the cloud service Firebase Realtime Databaseyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes infousing MemoryDByes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
IngresLovefieldNeo4jStardog
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is a knowledge graph platform backed by a performant, scalable graph database....
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog is uniquely designed to aid in data integration for your complex data. Benefits...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
News

This Week in Neo4j – We need your GraphConnect 2020 talks, New Educator Program, Tuning Cypher, How do British MPs vote?
19 October 2019

#GraphCast: Bloom Series
18 October 2019

GraphConnect 2020: Call for Papers Closing November 15
17 October 2019

How Boston Scientific Improves Manufacturing Quality Using Graph Analytics
16 October 2019

Overcoming CCPA Compliance Challenges: What Is CCPA?
14 October 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
IngresLovefieldNeo4jStardog
DB-Engines blog posts

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

show all

Conferences and events

GraphConnect 2020
New York, USA, 20-22 April 2020

Recent citations in the news

PostgreSQL turns performance up for v12 release
3 October 2019, DevClass

Oracle Founder Larry Ellison on Uber, Tesla, AI, and Self-Driving Cars
20 September 2019, Barron's

PostgreSQL database specialist EnterpriseDB gets new backing
28 June 2019, TechTarget

DigitalOcean Adds PostgreSQL Database To Its Growing Portfolio Of Managed Services
16 February 2019, Forbes

Get started with PostgreSQL on Azure
5 February 2019, InfoWorld

provided by Google News

Lovefield: An SQL-like Query Engine by Google
18 November 2014, InfoQ.com

3 JavaScript ORMs You Might Not Know
7 October 2015, SitePoint

provided by Google News

Neo4j equips educators with data graphing teaching tools
10 October 2019, TechRepublic

NEORIS Demonstrates the Power of Graph Knowledge Management to Enable Predictive Analytics at Neo4j GraphTour New York
10 October 2019, PRNewswire

Neo4j Launches Program to Empower Educators
10 October 2019, PRNewswire

Neo4j Gets Hooks Into Kafka
1 October 2019, Datanami

Graph Database Market 2019 Status Analysis : triAGENS GmbH(Arango DB), Neo4j, Inc, OrientDB Ltd, Cayley
16 October 2019, News Adopt

provided by Google News

Job opportunities

Applications Developer (Level I)
VariQ, North Carolina

Database Specialist II
Computer World Services, Elizabeth City, NC

Operations Representative I
UGI Utilities, Inc, Bloomsburg, PA

Operations Representative I
UGI Utilities, Inc, Port Allegany, PA

APPLICATIONS, INTEGRATION, & WEB SYSTEMS SOFTWARE ENGINEER
University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Data Architect (Remote)
First San Francisco Partners, Remote

VP / Director of Engineering
LogicGate, Chicago, IL

Security Researcher (Threat Intelligence)
Palo Alto Networks, Santa Clara, CA

Software Engineer - Entitlements & Payments
iStreamPlanet, Remote

Business Intelligence Architect
Magic Leap, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL

jobs by Indeed




Share this page

Featured Products

Neo4j logo

Get your free copy of the new O'Reilly book Graph Algorithms with 20+ examples for
machine learning, graph analytics and more.

AllegroGraph logo

Graph Database Leader for AI Knowledge Graph Applications - The Most Secure Graph Database Available.
Free Download

Couchbase logo

SQL + JSON + NoSQL.
Power, flexibility & scale.
All open source.
Get started now.

Redis logo

Hosted, serverless DBaaS
in 3 steps.

30MB Free!
Start now.

Present your product here