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DBMS > Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Virtuoso vs. VoltDB

System Properties Comparison Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Virtuoso vs. VoltDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameImpala  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparisonVoltDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAnalytic DBMS for HadoopMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphsDistributed In-Memory NewSQL RDBMS infoUsed for OLTP applications with a high frequency of relatively simple transactions, that can hold all their data in memory
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score18.71
Rank#38  Overall
#23  Relational DBMS
Score954.02
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score5.07
Rank#72  Overall
#10  Document stores
#3  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#39  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#8  Search engines
Score1.72
Rank#131  Overall
#66  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.cloudera.com/­products/­open-source/­apache-hadoop/­impala.htmlwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-servervirtuoso.openlinksw.comwww.voltdb.com
Technical documentationdocs.cloudera.com/­documentation/­enterprise/­latest/­topics/­impala.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuosodocs.voltdb.com
DeveloperClouderaMicrosoftOpenLink SoftwareVoltDB Inc.
Initial release2013198919982010
Current release3.4.0, April 2020SQL Server 2019, November 201908.03.3316, March 202010.1, October 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license availableOpen Source infoAGPL for Community Edition, commercial license for Enterprise, AWS, and Pro Editions
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++C++CJava, C++
Server operating systemsLinuxLinux
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
OS X infofor development
Data schemeyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
yes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyesyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLXyes infoonly a subset of SQL 99
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Java API
JDBC
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
C#
C++
Erlang infonot officially supported
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javayes infoVirtuoso PLJava
Triggersnoyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationyesSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factoryes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReducenoyesno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyesno infoFOREIGN KEY constraints are not supported
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACIDACID infoTransactions are executed single-threaded within stored procedures
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes infoData access is serialized by the server
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes infoSnapshots and command logging
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Users and roles with access to stored procedures
More information provided by the system vendor
ImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerVirtuosoVoltDB
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
ImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerVirtuosoVoltDB
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Recent citations in the news

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10 November 2014, InformationWeek

Cloudera’s Impala brings Hadoop to SQL and BI
25 October 2012, ZDNet

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