DBMS > Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. ToroDB
System Properties Comparison Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. ToroDB
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||Impala Xexclude from comparison||Microsoft SQL Server Xexclude from comparison||ToroDB Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||Analytic DBMS for Hadoop||Microsofts flagship relational DBMS||A MongoDB-compatible JSON document store, built on top of PostgreSQL|
|Primary database model||Relational DBMS||Relational DBMS||Document store|
|Secondary database models||Document store||Document store|
|Current release||4.0.0, July 2021||SQL Server 2019, November 2019|
|License Commercial or Open Source||Open Source Apache Version 2||commercial restricted free version is available||Open Source AGPL-V3|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||no||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Server operating systems||Linux||Linux|
|All OS with a Java 7 VM|
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes string, integer, double, boolean, date, object_id|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||no||yes||no|
|SQL Support of SQL||SQL-like DML and DDL statements||yes|
|APIs and other access methods||JDBC|
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
|Supported programming languages||All languages supporting JDBC/ODBC||C#|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||yes user defined functions and integration of map-reduce||Transact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Java|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||Sharding||tables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federation||Sharding|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||selectable replication factor||yes, but depending on the SQL-Server Edition||Source-replica replication|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||yes query execution via MapReduce||no|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Eventual Consistency||Immediate Consistency||Eventual Consistency|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||no||yes||no|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||no||ACID||no|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||yes|
|User concepts Access control||Access rights for users, groups and roles based on Apache Sentry and Kerberos||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||Access rights for users and roles|
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|Impala||Microsoft SQL Server||ToroDB|
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