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DBMS > Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. ToroDB

System Properties Comparison Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. ToroDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameImpala  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonToroDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAnalytic DBMS for HadoopMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLA MongoDB-compatible JSON document store, built on top of PostgreSQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score17.55
Rank#40  Overall
#25  Relational DBMS
Score926.30
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score620.46
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score0.03
Rank#344  Overall
#45  Document stores
Websitewww.cloudera.com/­products/­open-source/­apache-hadoop/­impala.htmlwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.torodb.com
Technical documentationdocs.cloudera.com/­documentation/­enterprise/­latest/­topics/­impala.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org/­docswww.torodb.com/­stampede/­docs
DeveloperClouderaMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer8Kdata
Initial release201319891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2016
Current release4.0.0, July 2021SQL Server 2019, November 201914.5, August 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoAGPL-V3
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++C++CJava
Server operating systemsLinuxLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
All OS with a Java 7 VM
Data schemeyesyesyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes infostring, integer, double, boolean, date, object_id
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factoryes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsSource-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReducenono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles

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ImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLToroDB
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