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DBMS > Immudb vs. PostgreSQL vs. SpaceTime

System Properties Comparison Immudb vs. PostgreSQL vs. SpaceTime

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameImmudb  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSpaceTime  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAn open source immutable (append-only) database with cryptographic verification which makes it tamper-resistant and fully auditable.Widely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLSpaceTime is a spatio-temporal DBMS with a focus on performance.
Primary database modelKey-value storeRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Spatial DBMS
Secondary database modelsRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
Relational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.28
Rank#305  Overall
#44  Key-value stores
Score634.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score0.00
Rank#394  Overall
#8  Spatial DBMS
Websitegithub.com/­codenotary/­immudb
immudb.io
www.postgresql.orgwww.mireo.com/­spacetime
Technical documentationdocs.immudb.iowww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperCodenotaryPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerMireo
Initial release20201989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2020
Current release1.2.3, April 202216.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2.0Open Source infoBSDcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
Implementation languageGoCC++
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
macOS
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
Data schemeschema-freeyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesno
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like syntaxyes infostandard with numerous extensionsA subset of ANSI SQL is implemented
APIs and other access methodsgRPC protocol
PostgreSQL wire protocol
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
RESTful HTTP API
Supported programming languages.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
C#
C++
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersnoyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashFixed-grid hypercubes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsReal-time block device replication (DRBD)
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardyes

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More resources
ImmudbPostgreSQLSpaceTime
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Recent citations in the news

Codenotary brings its immutable database to the cloud
21 June 2023, TechCrunch

Codenotary Launches Fully Managed Immutable Cloud Database
21 June 2023, Business Wire

A Step by Step Guide to immudb — the open source immutable database
18 May 2020, hackernoon.com

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10 October 2022, Acceleration Economy

ImmuDB and Codenotary: It's a database, but the company isn't
20 December 2021, ZDNet

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