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DBMS > Hive vs. Neo4j vs. OrientDB vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Hive vs. Neo4j vs. OrientDB vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameHive  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonOrientDB  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
Descriptiondata warehouse software for querying and managing large distributed datasets, built on HadoopScalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offeringsMulti-model DBMS (Document, Graph, Key/Value)Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSGraph DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Key-value store
Document store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score78.66
Rank#17  Overall
#11  Relational DBMS
Score59.35
Rank#19  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score5.21
Rank#78  Overall
#15  Document stores
#5  Graph DBMS
#12  Key-value stores
Score6.16
Rank#71  Overall
#13  Document stores
#3  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#39  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitehive.apache.orgneo4j.comorientdb.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationcwiki.apache.org/­confluence/­display/­Hive/­Homeneo4j.com/­docswww.orientdb.com/­docs/­last/­index.htmldocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoinitially developed by FacebookNeo4j, Inc.OrientDB LTD; CallidusCloud; SAPOpenLink Software
Initial release2012200720101998
Current release3.1.2, August 20194.4.10, August 20223.1.9, February 20217.2.7, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageJavaJava, ScalaJavaC
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
All OS with a Java JDK (>= JDK 6)AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free infoSchema can be enforced for whole record ("schema-full") or for some fields only ("schema-hybrid")yes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes
Secondary indexesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsnoSQL-like query language, no joinsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
Thrift
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
Tinkerpop technology stack with Blueprints, Gremlin, Pipes
Java API
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC++
Java
PHP
Python
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceyes infoUser defined Procedures and FunctionsJava, Javascriptyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnoyes infovia event handlerHooksyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingyes using Neo4j FabricShardingyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factorCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMulti-source replicationChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReducenono infocould be achieved with distributed queriesyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationship in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and rolesUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and roles; record level security configurableFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
HiveNeo4jOrientDBVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

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17 August 2022

Using Graph Technology for Environmental Data Compliance and Implementation
15 August 2022

This Week in Neo4j: GraphQL, Low Code, Cybersecurity, Graph Refactoring, and More
13 August 2022

Neo4j Graph Framework and Project Assessment
11 August 2022

How Graphs Power OpenSanctions: The 5-Minute Interview with Friedrich Lindenberg
10 August 2022

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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Graphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
HiveNeo4jOrientDBVirtuoso
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