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DBMS > H2 vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite

System Properties Comparison H2 vs. Oracle vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameH2  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSQLite  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Widely used RDBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLWidely used embeddable, in-process RDBMS
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Spatial DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score10.12
Rank#47  Overall
#30  Relational DBMS
Score1281.74
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score608.21
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score128.68
Rank#9  Overall
#6  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.h2database.comwww.oracle.com/­databasewww.postgresql.orgwww.sqlite.org
Technical documentationwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmldocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasewww.postgresql.org/­docswww.sqlite.org/­docs.html
DeveloperThomas MuellerOraclePostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerDwayne Richard Hipp
Initial release200519801989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2000
Current release1.4.200, October 201919c, February 201914.1, November 20213.36.0  (18 June 2021), June 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoPublic Domain
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC and C++CC
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMAIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
server-less
Data schemeyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyesyes infodynamic column types
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes infonot rigid because of 'dynamic typing' concept.
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92 is not fully supported
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET infoinofficial driver
JDBC infoinofficial driver
ODBC infoinofficial driver
Supported programming languagesJavaC
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Actionscript
Ada
Basic
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Forth
Fortran
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Lua
MatLab
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
PL/SQL
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Scheme
Smalltalk
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneSharding, horizontal partitioningpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnono infocan be realized in PL/SQLnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyesyes infovia file-system locks
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardno

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