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DBMS > H2 vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. ToroDB

System Properties Comparison H2 vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. ToroDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameH2  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonToroDB  Xexclude from comparison
ToroDB seems to be discontinued. Therefore it is excluded from the DB-Engines Ranking.
DescriptionFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Database as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerA MongoDB-compatible JSON document store, built on top of PostgreSQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument store
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score8.01
Rank#47  Overall
#31  Relational DBMS
Score76.75
Rank#16  Overall
#11  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.h2database.comazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­products/­azure-sql/­databasegithub.com/­torodb/­server
Technical documentationwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sql
DeveloperThomas MuellerMicrosoft8Kdata
Initial release200520102016
Current release2.2.220, July 2023V12
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)commercialOpen Source infoAGPL-V3
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC++Java
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMhostedAll OS with a Java 7 VM
Data schemeyesyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes infostring, integer, double, boolean, date, object_id
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesno
Secondary indexesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyes
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesJava.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsTransact SQL
Triggersyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseyes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles

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More resources
H2Microsoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureToroDB
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