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DBMS > H2 vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison H2 vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameH2  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Database as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score8.95
Rank#50  Overall
#30  Relational DBMS
Score74.79
Rank#15  Overall
#10  Relational DBMS
Score568.51
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.h2database.comazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperThomas MuellerMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release200520101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release1.4.200, October 2019V1213.3, May 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)commercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC++C
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesJava.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseyes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesno
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
H2Microsoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzurePostgreSQL
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