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DBMS > H2 vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison H2 vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameH2  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Globally distributed, horizontally scalable, multi-model database serviceWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Key-value store
Wide column store
Relational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSSpatial DBMSDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score9.83
Rank#51  Overall
#31  Relational DBMS
Score40.22
Rank#27  Overall
#4  Document stores
#2  Graph DBMS
#3  Key-value stores
#3  Wide column stores
Score615.29
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.h2database.comazure.microsoft.com/­services/­cosmos-dbwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­azure/­cosmos-dbwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperThomas MuellerMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release200520141989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release2.1.210, January 202214.3, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)commercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-freeyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infoJSON typesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyes infoAll properties auto-indexed by defaultyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesSQL-like query languageyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
DocumentDB API
Graph API (Gremlin)
MongoDB API
RESTful HTTP API
Table API
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesJava.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
MongoDB client drivers written for various programming languages
Python
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsJavaScriptuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
TriggersyesJavaScriptyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud servicepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseyes infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnowith Hadoop integration infoIntegration with Hadoop/HDInsight on Azure*no
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyBounded Staleness
Consistent Prefix
Eventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infoConsistency level configurable on request level
Session Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesnoyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDMulti-item ACID transactions with snapshot isolation within a partitionACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesno
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights can be defined down to the item levelfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
H2Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDBPostgreSQL
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Recent citations in the news

Microsoft fixes cross-account vulns in Azure Database for PostgreSQL service
28 April 2022, The Register

An Introduction and Tutorial for Azure Cosmos DB
25 February 2022, InfoQ.com

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27 August 2021, TechTarget

Integrate Azure and Spring with Spring Cloud Azure
9 May 2022, iProgrammer

Hackers manage to smash Microsoft's Azure Cosmos DB database cluster, reveal poor security practices
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