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DBMS > H2 vs. HyperSQL vs. Neo4j

System Properties Comparison H2 vs. HyperSQL vs. Neo4j

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameH2  Xexclude from comparisonHyperSQL infoalso known as HSQLDB  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Multithreaded, transactional RDBMS written in Java infoalso known as HSQLDBScalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offerings
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSGraph DBMS
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score8.95
Rank#50  Overall
#30  Relational DBMS
Score4.84
Rank#74  Overall
#41  Relational DBMS
Score55.75
Rank#18  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.h2database.comhsqldb.orgneo4j.com
Technical documentationwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmlhsqldb.org/­web/­hsqlDocsFrame.htmlneo4j.com/­docs
DeveloperThomas MuellerNeo4j, Inc.
Initial release200520012007
Current release1.4.200, October 20192.6.0, March 20214.3.0, June 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)Open Source infobased on BSD licenseOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageJavaJavaJava, Scala
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMAll OS with a Java VM infoEmbedded (into Java applications) and Client-Server operating modesLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-free and schema-optional
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nono
Secondary indexesyesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Lucene
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesno
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
HTTP API infoJDBC via HTTP
JDBC
ODBC
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesJavaAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBC
Java
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsJava, SQLyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functions
Triggersyesyesyes infovia event handler
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenoneyes using Neo4j Fabric
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databasenoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version only
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
H2HyperSQL infoalso known as HSQLDBNeo4j
Specific characteristicsNeo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Key customersOver 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
News

Why DTCP Decided to Invest in Neo4j
22 June 2021

This Week in Neo4j – Recommendations, Shakespeare, Graphyx, Aura Free Tier, Dungeons and Dragons, GraphSAGE, NODES 2021
19 June 2021

Announcing Early Access of Neo4j Aura Free Tier
18 June 2021

Neo4j Raises the Largest Funding Round in Database History
17 June 2021

Introducing Neo4j 4.3: The Fastest Path to Graph Productivity
17 June 2021

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesGraphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
H2HyperSQL infoalso known as HSQLDBNeo4j
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Conferences and events

Graph-Centered AppDev Series, What's wrong with your application?
Webinar, Episode 1 [REPLAY], 6 April 2021 - 6 July 2021

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