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DBMS > GraphDB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. RDF4J vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison GraphDB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. RDF4J vs. Stardog vs. Virtuoso

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIM  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonRDF4J infoformerly known as Sesame  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionEnterprise RDF and graph database with efficient reasoning, cluster and external index synchronization supportDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerRDF4J is a Java framework for processing RDF data, supporting both memory-based and a disk-based storage.Enterprise Knowledge Graph and graph DBMS with high availability and high performance reasoningVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Relational DBMSRDF storeGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.14
Rank#137  Overall
#8  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Score28.20
Rank#25  Overall
#14  Relational DBMS
Score0.39
Rank#220  Overall
#10  RDF stores
Score0.81
Rank#165  Overall
#13  Graph DBMS
#7  RDF stores
Score2.65
Rank#96  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websitegraphdb.ontotext.comazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databaserdf4j.orgwww.stardog.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationgraphdb.ontotext.com/­documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­sql-databasedocs.rdf4j.orgwww.stardog.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperOntotextMicrosoftSince 2016 officially forked into an Eclipse project, former developer was Aduna Software.Stardog-UnionOpenLink Software
Initial release20002010200420101998
Current release8.8, January 2019V126.2.3, July 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial infolimited edition freecommercialOpen Source infoEclipse Distribution License (EDL), v1.0.commercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceno infoNamed S4, Ontotext provides a semantic graph database based on GraphDB in the cloud.yesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageJavaC++JavaJavaC
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VM
Linux
OS X
Windows
hostedLinux
OS X
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportyesyes infoRDF Schemasschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesno infoImport/export of XML data possibleyes
Secondary indexesyes, supports real-time synchronization and indexing in SOLR/Elastic search/Lucene and GeoSPARQL geometry data indexesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSPARQL is used as query languageyesnoSPARQL is used as query languageyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsGeoSPARQL
Java API
RDF4J API
RIO
Sail API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL 1.1
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Java API
RIO infoRDF Input/Output
Sail API
SeRQL infoSesame RDF Query Language
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
C#
Clojure
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Java
PHP
Python
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresJava Server PluginTransact SQLyesuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javayes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnoyesyesyes infovia event handlersyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-master replicationyes, with always 3 replicas availablenoneMaster-master replication in HA-ClusterChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate Consistency, Eventual consistency (configurable in cluster mode per master or individual client request)Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-ClusterImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoConstraint checkingyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID infoIsolation support depends on the API usedACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes infoin-memory storage is supported as wellyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlyesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoAccess rights for users and rolesFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
GraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureRDF4J infoformerly known as SesameStardogVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsGraphDB Enterprise is a high-performance semantic repository created by Ontotext....
» more
Stardog is a knowledge graph platform backed by a performant, scalable graph database....
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesGraphDB allows you to link text and data in big knowledge graphs. It’s easy to experiment...
» more
Stardog is uniquely designed to aid in data integration for your complex data. Benefits...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosMetadata enrichment and management, linked open data publishing, semantic inferencing...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBBC, Press Association, Financial Times, DK, Euromoney, The British Museum, Getty...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsGraphDB is the most utilized semantic triplestore for mission-critical enterprise...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGraphDB-Free is free to use. SE and Enterprise are licensed per CPU-Core used. Perpetual...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Ontotext’s Graph Database Helps Create EU-Wide Company Business Graph
23 January 2020

A Graphful of Investment Opportunities
10 January 2020

Ontotext’s Most Popular Blog Posts for 2019
30 December 2019

A New Hope: The Rise of the Knowledge Graph
6 December 2019

The New Improved and Open GraphDB
7 November 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
GraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureRDF4J infoformerly known as SesameStardogVirtuoso
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Conferences and events

Designing Semantic Technology Proof-of-Concept
Online Training, 13:00 – 18:00 UTC, 12 December 2019 (finished)

Ontotext Platform – the Fast Track from an RDF Model to a Knowledge Graph
Online Training, 4pm GMT, 17 December 2019 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

It's just semantics: Bulgarian software dev Ontotext squeezes out GraphDB 9.1
15 January 2020, The Register

GraphDB 9.1 - the Database to Support High-quality Knowledge Graphs
13 January 2020, PRNewswire

Ontotext GraphDB Named Innovator in Bloor's Graph Database Market Research
11 February 2019, PRNewswire

Ontotext's GraphDB 8.10 Makes Knowledge Graph Experience Faster and Richer
13 June 2019, Yahoo Finance

Ontotext's GraphDB 9.0 Open-sources its Front-end and Engine Plugins to Empower Knowledge Graph Solutions
3 October 2019, PRNewswire

provided by Google News

Running Database Console Commands (DBCCs) on Azure SQL Database
20 January 2020, Database Journal

Deployment options for Azure SQL Database | Data Exposed - Microsoft
9 January 2020, Channel 9

Overview of Azure SQL Database Serverless
30 December 2019, Database Journal

It's just SQL: Collations in Azure SQL Database Managed Instance - Microsoft
2 January 2020, Channel 9

Learning SQL: Skills and Knowledge You Need to Know
23 January 2020, Dice Insights

provided by Google News

Big data database Apache Rya becomes a Top Level Project
10 October 2019, JAXenter

Amazon Neptune review: A scalable graph database for OLTP
13 May 2019, InfoWorld

Ontotext's GraphDB 8.10 Makes Knowledge Graph Experience Faster and Richer
13 June 2019, Yahoo Finance

Trend-Setting Product of 2019: Ontotext: Ontotext GraphDB
8 July 2019, KMWorld Magazine

GraphDB 9.0 Open Sources Its Front End and Engine Plugins to Support Knowledge Graph Solutions
7 October 2019, Database Trends and Applications

provided by Google News

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