DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite
System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. PostgreSQL vs. SQLite
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||Google Cloud Spanner Xexclude from comparison||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||SQLite Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||A horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||Widely used embeddable, in-process RDBMS|
|Primary database model||Relational DBMS||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Relational DBMS|
|Secondary database models||Document store|
|Developer||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||Dwayne Richard Hipp|
|Initial release||2017||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||2000|
|Current release||14.4, June 2022||3.38.5 (6 May 2022), May 2022|
|License Commercial or Open Source||commercial||Open Source BSD||Open Source Public Domain|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||yes||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Server operating systems||hosted||FreeBSD|
|Data scheme||yes||yes||yes dynamic column types|
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes not rigid because of 'dynamic typing' concept.|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||no||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.||no|
|SQL Support of SQL||yes Query statements complying to ANSI 2011||yes standard with numerous extensions||yes SQL-92 is not fully supported|
|APIs and other access methods||gRPC (using protocol buffers) API|
JDBC At present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
native C library
streaming API for large objects
|ADO.NET inofficial driver|
JDBC inofficial driver
ODBC inofficial driver
|Supported programming languages||Go|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||no||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.||no|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||Sharding||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash||none|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||Multi-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions||none|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||yes using Google Cloud Dataflow||no||no|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||yes by using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrity||yes||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||ACID Strict serializable isolation||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes via file-system locks|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||no||yes|
|User concepts Access control||Access rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||no|
More information provided by the system vendor
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|Google Cloud Spanner||PostgreSQL||SQLite|
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