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DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.Open source graph databaseEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
Primary database modelRelational DBMSGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.81
Rank#95  Overall
#49  Relational DBMS
Score52.23
Rank#19  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score1.71
Rank#126  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Websitecloud.google.com/­spannerneo4j.comwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docsneo4j.com/­docsdocs.stardog.com
DeveloperGoogleNeo4j, Inc.Stardog-Union
Initial release201720072010
Current release4.2.6, May 20217.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageJava, ScalaJava
Server operating systemshostedLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nono infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011noYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesGo
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
Triggersnoyes infovia event handleryes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingyes using Neo4j Fabricnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.Causal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflownono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoStrict serializable isolationACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)Users, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
Google Cloud SpannerNeo4jStardog
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
News

Celebrating Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month at Neo4j
13 May 2021

Top 5 Graph Analytics Takeaways from Gartner’s Data & Analytics Summit
11 May 2021

Advantages of Neo4j Aura Enterprise: Cost-Effective and Future-Proof
10 May 2021

This Week in Neo4j – Neo4j Streams, Event Processing, Py2Neo, News as Knowledge Graphs
8 May 2021

Intelligent Content Curation: 5-Minute Interview with Tourism Media’s Terry Franklin
7 May 2021

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesGraphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
Google Cloud SpannerNeo4jStardog
DB-Engines blog posts

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

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2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

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22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

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Conferences and events

Graph-Centered AppDev Series, What's wrong with your application?
Webinar, Episode 1 [REPLAY], 6 April 2021 - 6 July 2021

Recent citations in the news

Google upgrades Cloud Spanner's encryption capabilities
22 April 2021, SiliconANGLE News

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provided by Google News

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Neo4j: Why Graph Technology Is the Key to Fraud Detection
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Neo4j's Graphs 4 COVID-19 Initiative Honored Twice in Fast Company's 2021 World Changing Ideas
5 May 2021, PRNewswire

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13 May 2021, Brockville Observer

provided by Google News

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